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In coming to a decision as to which of the manifold ways of transliterating 
Ancient Egyptian proper names I should adopt in this Catalogue I have been 
guided by two considerations to follow Sir Gaston Maspero. In the first place, 
those who wish to refer to the actual objects catalogued will naturally make use 
of his Guide du Visiteur au Muse'e du Caire; and it will he a convenience to those 
anatomists and anthropologists, who, like the writer, are ignorant of Egyptian 
philology, to find the same object referred to by the same name in both works 
of reference. In the second place I shall have to refer on almost every page of 
this Catalogue to M. Maspero’s great monograph, Les Momies royales de Deir- 
el-Bahari (Memoires publies par les membres de la Mission archeologique francaise 
au Caire sous la direction de M. Maspero, Membre de 1 ’Institut, tome pre- 
mier, quatrieme fascicule, Paris, 1889); and I have striven to make the 
spelling of names in my text agree with that of the numerous quotations from 
M. Maspero’s writings. When the mode of transliteration in Les Momies royales 
differs from that of the Guide du Visiteur I have followed the latter as being the 
more recent. 

It is desirable at the outset to make an explicit statement in reference to 
certain matters, which in the future, as has happened in the past, are sure to 
cause misunderstandings. 

In the first place I must explain the scope and nature of this Catalogue. When 
M. Maspero requested me to undertake this work the intention was to write a 
report upon such anatomical and pathological features as a careful examination 
of the mummies would reveal. In the case of many of the mummies, especially 
those in the best state of preservation, there was singularly little that an anato- 
mist could do, provided of course that he refrained -from damaging the body.* 
In such mummies as those of Ramses III, for instance, the anatomist can add 
little to what any one can see for himself by looking At the body encased in its 
resinous carapace. Examination with the aid of the X-rays would, no doubt, 
have provided much additional information — and I hope this will be done at 




some future time — but I was unable to get such investigations carried out, 
except in the case of the mummy of Thoutmosis IV. In the course of my preli- 
minary examinations of the Royal Mummies so much information came to light 
concerning the treatment of the body, in the process of embalming, that I asked 
M. Maspero to allow me to study the problems thus raised in the case of 
mummies less precious, historically, than those of the Pharaohs and their 
families. M. Maspero very generously gave me every assistance and placed at my 
disposal a large series of mummies, which provided the material for my memoir, 

A Contribution to the Study of Mummification in Egypt {Memoires de Vlnstitut 
egyptien, tome V, fascicule 1, 1906), and a series of notes published in the 
Bulletins de Vlnstitut egyptien, the Annales du Service des Antiquite's de FEgypte 
(190& et seq.), the Cairo Scientific Journal, the Proceedings of the British Asso- 
ciation, and the Proceedings of the Boyal Philosophical Society of Glasgow. Moreover 
certain colleagues and friends, Professor W. A. Schmidt, Mr. A. Lucas, Mr. W. M. 
Colies, Dr. Armand Ruffer and Professor A. R. Ferguson, came to my assistance, 
and investigated aspects of the problems of mummification, upon which their 
special knowledge enabled them to throw a great deal of light. The memoirs of 
Professor Schmidt, Chemische und biologische Uniersuchungen von agyptischem 
Mumienmaterial, nebst Betrachtungen uber das Einbalsamierungsverfahren der alten 
Aegypter (Zeitschrift fur allgemeine Physiologie, Rd. VII, 1907, p. 369-892) 
and Uber Mumienfettsauren (Ghemiker-Zeitung, 1908, n° 65 ), and Mr. Lucas’ 
Preservative Materials used by the Ancient Egyptians in Embalming (Survey Depart- 
ment Paper, n° 12, Cairo, 1911) are works of fundamental importance in this 
investigation, especially as much of the material upon which their researches 
are based was obtained from the Royal Mummies with which this Catalogue 

Thus a second and much more fruitful line of investigation was opened up, 
namely, the light these mummies throw upon the history of the evolution of the 
art of embalming. This question is fully discussed in the Catalogue. * 

The earliest mummy discussed here is that of Saqnounri, the last king of the 
XVII th Dynasty. I have summarized the evidence relating to the evolution of 
embalming before his time in the History of Mummification in Egypt ( Proceedings 
of the Royal Philosophical Society of Glasgow, 1910), and also in Quibell’s Exca- 
vations at Saqqara, 1906-1907. 

In discussing the technique of mummification and the customs associated 
with it one has to deal with subjects that may possibly give rise to offence , on 
the ground that it is not showing due respect to the memories of the powerful 


rulers of Ancient Egypt to display their naked remains , and use them as material 
for anthropological investigations. In fact a good deal of comment has been 
made in the past in reference to the so-called « sacrilege v , on the part of modern 
archaeologists, in opening royal Aombs and removing and unwrapping the 
mummies. < 

Those who make such complaints seem to be unaware that the real desecra- 
tion was committed twenty nine centuries ago by the subjects of these rulers; 
and that modern archaeologists, in doing what they have done, have been 
rescuing these mummies from the destructive vandalism of the modern descen- 
dants of these ancient grave-plunderers. 

Having these valuable historical tr documents » in our possession it is surely 
our duty to read them as fully and as carefully as possible. In Egypt phallic 
ideas have held sway from the earliest times; and the evidence for, and against, 
the influence of such ideas in determining the technique of embalming has given 
rise to such pronounced contradictions , often based upon errors of observation , 
that no course was open to me but to let the naked bodies tell their own story. 

I have endeavoured to make the discussions of the features of the mummies 
as concise as possible, because Brugsch Pasha’s excellent photographs make 
minute descriptions unnecessary. 

There is one other question that is constantly cropping up and giving rise to 
much misunderstanding : it is the problem of determining the age of a mummy. 
Apart from baldness, whitening of the hair and the extent of the wearing-down 
of the teeth — all of which, as every observant man knows, are of little value as 
evidence of the precise age of any individual — only the bones of the skeleton (in 
persons above the age of puberty) can give any definite information in reference 
to age. A large proportion of the mummies are so well-preserved that no access 
to the bones can be obtained. Blit even when some, or even all, of the bones 
are available for examination it is not possible for the anatomist, at any rate in 
the present state of knowledge, to make an exact estimate of the number of 
years the person had lived. In this Catalogue I have taken the specific case of 
the skeleton supposed to be Khouniatonou’s (Akhenaten’s), and have set forth in 
detail the nature of the evidence and the reasons for the uncertainty of its 
significance. But Khouniatonou’s is a very much easier and simpler problem than 
that presented by Thoutmosis IV ths mummy. In the former the whole skeleton 
was available , whereas in the latter \- had to deal with the mummy. One leg 
had been broken across at the knee , so that I was able to determine that his 
leg-bones were fully consolidated, and that he was at least 2 A years of age. 


Scraping away the resinous material from the part of the os innominatum, 
exposed in the embalming wound jn the left flank, I found that the epiphysis of 
the crest of the ilium was fused to the rest of the hone in all except its posterior 
extremity, where a slight fissure, or rather, groove, still existed. The text-books 
state that this epiphysis maintains its independence until about 2 5 years of 
age; and therefore I assumed that Thoutmosis IV was about this age at the time 
of his death. I did not submit this estimate to the critical analysis, which was 
necessary in the case of Khouniatonou , for two reasons. In the latter case the ana- 
tomical and archaeological evidence seemed to clash and I was compelled to set 
forth all the reservations which might provide the way for agreement. In the 
case of Thoutmosis IV I was led to believe (in 1 90&) that the historical evi- 
dence assigned an early age to that Pharaoh; and as the anatomical evidence 
was in agreement there was no reason for making any reservation. Since then, 
however, I have discovered that historians are far from being agreed in regard 
to the youth of Thoutmosis IV. In the case of Khouniatonou the fact emerges that 
the evidence afforded by one bone alone, as in the case of Thoutmosis IV, must 
be received with caution. Moreover I have since discovered that no bone is more 
misleading than the innominate bone; for I have found that the sulcus which 
separates the posterior part of the epiphysis cristae may remain open until 
middle age. Had I been aware of these facts seven years ago, when I wrote my 
report on Thoutmosis IV, I would still have suggested a 5 years as his age, as I 
suppose most anatomists would have done; but with my present experience of 
the variability of the relative dates of epiphyseal unions in ancient Egyptian 
bones, I would make the reservation that the anatomical evidence, when based 
upon the penultimate stage of consolidation of a single bone, cannot be regarded 
as conclusive. 

I had no opportunity of seeing the proofs of the plates before they were 
printed and there are a number of points that call for comment. In some cases 
the engraver was unable to put several figures into a single plate, as had been 
intended; and, in the process of rearrangement, he has altered the order of 
the Plates or rr squeezed out» some of them, which have had to be put at the 
end of the series. In Plate XXXIX (which should have been in the place of 
XXXVIII) crbaqts should read «Baqt». 

In Plate XXXII , fig. 2 is upside down : and the details of the inscription are 
shown in their proper orientation in Plates G to GUI. 

The description of fig. 2, Plate LXII, should read sSiphtah’s feet — tali- 
pes of left foots; that of Plate LXXIV, « Queen Makeri’s baby — princess 

— VII 

Moutemhitw; and that of fig. 1, Plate XGVI, «An intrusive Mummy from the 
tomh of Thoutmosis III». 

In deleting the hack-ground in the photograph from which Plate XXIX 
was made the engraver has left a large black mass, on the lower back part of 
the head, which looks like a mass of hair, a kind of flattened chignon. The 
true profile of the head is shown in another reproduction of the same photograph 
in The Tomb of Thoutmosis IV (Theodore M. Davis’ excavations, 190&). 





> — — — : 


61051. Mummy of the king Saqnounri III Tiouaqen of the XVII dynasty 

(pi. I, II and III). 

Found at Deir el-Bahari in the year 1881 {Les Momies royales, p. 5 ti- 5 a 4 ) and 
brought to the Cairo Museum (then at Boulac), the mummy was unrolled by 
M. Maspero {op. cit., p. 5 27) on June 9 th 1886. The wrappings left upon the 
limbs by M. Maspero were removed by me on September i sl 1906. The evidence 
for the identification of the mummy is given by M. Maspero {op. cit., p. 5 a 6), 
whose account of the unwrapping is as follows : 

«Deux grands linceuls en toile grossi&re, mal attaches, la rev&aient des pieds a la t&e, 
puis on rencontra quelques pieces de linge ntigligemment routes et des tampons de 
chiffons, maintenus par des bandelettes, le tout gras au toucher et p<$n< 5 tr 4 d’une 
odeur f 4 Ces premieres enveloppes une fois levies, il nous resta entre les mains 
une sorte de fuseau d’<5toffe long d’environ 1 m. 82 cent, et tellement mince quil 
semblait impossible qu’un corps humain pAt y trouver place. Les deux demises 
couches de toile 4taient collies par les parfums et adWraient a la peau : on les 
fendit au couteau et le corps entier parut au jour* ( Les Momies royales, p. 527). 

All that now remains of Saqnounri Tiou&qen is a badly damaged, disarticulated skele- 
ton enclosed in an imperfect sheet of soft , moist , flexible , dark brown skin , which 
has a strongly aromatic, spicy odour. The skin resembles that of mummies of the 
Coptic period after they have been exposed to the air and the preservative salts have 
deliquesced and softened the tissues. But my colleague Professor W. A. Schmidt has 
been unable to find in Saqnounri’s skin any greater quantity of chloride of sodium 
than occurs in untreated human tissues. The spicy odour of the skin is due to the 
fact that it has been sprinkled with powdered aromatic wood (or sawdust). 

No attempt was made to put the body into the customary mummy -position; the head 
had not been straightened on the trunk, the legs were not fully extended, and the 



arms and hands were left in the agonised attitude (Plate I), into which they had 
been thrown in the death spasms following the murderous attack, the evidence of 
which is so clearly impressed on the battered face and skull. Instead of being put 
into an attitude of repose, as was the usual custom in embalming, the face was left 
as it was found at the time of death, the lips widely retracted from the teeth, so 
that the mouth forms a distorted oval, the upper lip being pulled up toward the 
right and the lower lip downward to the left (to Plate II). The whole attitude of 
the body is such as we might expect to find in the body of one who had suffered the 
violent death which the terrible wounds on Saqnounrfs head declare to have been 
his fate. M. Maspero has reconstituted Saqnounrfs death-scene with great skill 
(op. cit., p. 5 a 8) and has also interpreted the state of the body, to which I have just 
referred , as being clear evidence that it was hurriedly mummified far away from the 
laboratories of the embalmers — he suggests the field of battle as the probable scene 
of Saqnounrfs death and embalming. Another explanation is suggested in the same 
volume (op. cit., Les Momies royales. Appendix IV, p. 776) by D r Fouquet in these 
words : «La momie de ce roi est en tr&s mauvais 4 tat de conservation : tu<$ sur 
le champ de bataille, Soqnounrt fut tr&s probablement transport^ a Th&bes pour 
y 4 tre momifi^. Le voyage dura plusieurs jours, et le cadavre (itait en pleine 
decomposition quand on le remit aux mains des embaumeurs The evidence is all 
against this hypothesis and in favour of M. Maspero’s explanation. The condition of 
the mummy is clearly not due to delay in being submitted to the embalmers , but to 
the manner of preserving the body — the method which, as will be shown in the 
succeeding pages, was in vogue at the end of the XVII th and beginning of the XVIII th 
dynasties; and in this case it was practised in a rough and hasty manner. If the 
embalming had been done in a leisurely manner in Thebes or in any other place, 
where there were facilities for the proper treatment of the body, the mummy would 
have certainly received the usual careful preparation for wrapping — the legs would 
have been fully extended , the arms placed in the positions defined by the conventions 
of the time, and the head, and especially the face, would have been submitted to 
an elaborate toilet. The absence of all these attentions clearly demonstrates the 
probability of M. Maspero’s suggestion that the body was hastily embalmed on or 
near the field of battle. 

By building up the skeleton I have been able to estimate the size and proportions of 
the body. Soqnounrt was 1 m. 70a mill, in height : although the teeth are so 
well-worn as to be almost all molariform, the fact that all the cranial sutures are 
still patent suggests that the king was not much more than thirty years of age at 
the time of death : but the complete ankylosis of the meta-and meso- sterna might 
be adduced as evidence of an age of at least forty. Experience in the examination of 
Egyptian hones, however, does not lead one to place much reliance upon the time 
of consolidation of the ensiform as an index of age. 

The cranium is a very large, relatively flat, ovoid, 0 m. iq 5 mill., long, 0 m. i 48 mill, 
broad and 0 m. i 3 i mill, in height (basi-bregmatic). 

The jaw conforms to the Egyptian type : the bi gonial breadth is 0 m. 09 5 mill., the 



bicondylar breadth is o m. 1 35 mill., the height of the symphysis is o m. 087 mill, 
and the vertical measurement to the sigmoid notch is 0 m. o 46 mill. The 
length and breadth of the palate (Plate III) are 0 m. o 5 g mill, and 0 m. o 38 mill, 
respectively. The face is so badly smashed by the fatal injuries that no accurate 
measurements can be made , but it seems to conform to the Egyptian type. 

There is a complete set of healthy teeth almost entirely free from tartar -deposits. The 
third molars on both sides of both jaws are practically unworn , but all the other 
teeth are well worn (Plate III). 

The maximum length of the left femur is o m. 46 0 mill, and the oblique length 
o m. 45 a mill. : the whole leg, heel to head of femur, measures 0 m. gaA mill., 
the head of the femur to the upper articular surface of the atlas o m. 647 mill, 
and the basi-bregmatic height adds 0 m. i 3 i mill., to these measurements and 
brings the total up to i m. 70a mill. 

The femur is a very massive bone, with strongly -marked muscular ridges : its shaft 
has a slightly forward curve : the articular surface of the head extends on to the 
antero- superior aspect of the neck — a feature which is usually associated with the 
practice of sitting in the squatting attitude. 

The right humerus, as is usual in right-handed persons, is more massive than the 
left, and its coronoid fossa is not perforated as that of the left bone is. The length 
measurements of the two bones, however, are identical : maximum length o m. 
33 a mill., oblique length 0 m. 33 o mill. 

The length of the right radius is estimated at 0 m. a 46 mill., and the distance from 
the radial surface of the lunar bone to the tip of the middle finger is 0 m. 1 go mill. 

The scapulae are very long and pointed below, and the acromial end of the clavicle 
has a curiously conical form , ending in a small articular facet. On the back of the 
right papula there is an ulcer, 0 m. 02 cent, x 0 m. 01 cent., extending from the 
posterior lip of the glenoid fossa in its lower half : its edges are raised, but the 
nature of the lesion is doubtful. 

The verbebral column presents the usual number of segments. On the left side of the 
atlas the vertebral canal is bridged over by a bar of bone but on the right side the 
bridge is not quite complete. All the cervical spines, except the first and last, are 
markedly bifid. There is a perfectly typical, solidly-built, five- pieced sacrum, 
o m. 086 mill, long (0 m. io 4 mill, around the ventral curve) and 0 m. iog mill, 

In the process of embalming a vertical incision was made in the left Sank 0 m. 1 56 mill, 
in length, its lower end being immediately in front of the anterior superior 
spine of the ilium. The opening is now elliptical and gapes to the. extent of 0 m. 
o 38 mill. Through it the greater part of the abdominal viscera had been removed 
and an opening (o m. 1 a 5 mill, in diameter) was made through the centre of the 
diaphragm for the purpose of removing the thoracic viscera. 

No trace whatever of the thoracic organs now remains and as the thorax, unlike the 
abdomen, was not packed with linen, it is not possible to state what treatment the 
heart and lungs received , or whether or not they were originally left in situ in the 


body. The fact that a definite opening was made into the thorax — even if we admit 
the unlikely possibility that it was made accidentally when cutting out the liver 
and stomach — favours the probability that some, at least, of the thoracic contents 
were eviscerated. c 

The abdominal cavity and pelvis were tightly packed with linen forming a solid mass, 
which is still well-preserved. It was the impressions on this mass of the flank 
incision, of the walls of the body- cavity and the diaphragm (whjgly^as still adhering 
to the linen cast) which gave me most of the information recorded in the preceding 
paragraphs. Remains of some of the abdominal viscera were still attached to the 
posterior surface of the mass of linen. 

No attempt had been made to open the cranial cavity through the nostrils, such as was 
the custom from the time of the XVIII th dynasty onwards : nor had any packing 
material been introduced into the cranial cavity through the extensive wounds 
inflicted on the skull. 

All of these details in the case of Saqnounri assume very special importance , when it 
is realised that his body is the earliest mummy in the Museum the authenticity of 
which is beyond question. I have recently ( Cairo Scientific Journal, vol. II, n° 37, 
December 1908, p. k s 4 ) called attention to the fact that mummification was 
certainly practised as early as the time of the V th dynasty, but, with the single 
exception of the mummy said to be that of Ranofir (found by Flinders Petrie in a 
mastaba at Medum , and now in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons in 
London), all the mummies earlier than that of Saqnounri have been so fragile that 
they could not be moved. Definitely mummified bodies of the period of the Middle 
Empire have been found by Quibell at Saqqara and by Lythgoe and Mace at Lisht, 
but the tissues were pulverised. 


For the purpose of accurate description I shall assign distinctive numbers to the 
wounds inflicted upon the head; but it must not be imagined that there n um bers 
have any reference to the order of infliction of the wounds. 

The first wound (Plate II, arrow i), was placed transversely in the frontal bone. It 
extends from the middle line toward the right for a distance of 0 m. 06 3 mill.; 
and from its mesial end a crack runs around the left half of the frontal bone to end 
at the meeting place of the left temporal crest and the coronal suture. For a 
distance of o m. o 5 cent., in this wound a strip of bone, 0 m. 008 mill, wide, has 
been depressed and lies in the cranial cavity attached to the dura mater, which 
was also damaged. 

The scalp, cut by the blow which fractured the skull, was retracted from the edges • 
of the fissure in the skull. The appearance of the edges of this retracted scalp 
indicates with tolerable certainty that the wound was inflicted during life. For a 
distance of 0 m. o 3 s mill, along the crack extending from the fracture there was 
a patch of bare bone. The scalp must have been stripped from this bone either by 



a second blow or by some projection on the instrument with which the blow that 
caused the fracture was inflicted. At the junction of the fracture and the crack 
proceeding from it there were two triangular areas of bone , each about o m. 01 cent, 
in diameter, surrounded by fissured fractures. One of these became displaced and 
fell in to the cranium while 1 was examining the head. 

This wound (or wounds) was probably caused by an axe with an edge o m. o 5 cent, 
or o m. 06 cent. long. 

Around the right extremity of this wound there is a large crescentic mass of hair 
matted in some black material — presumably blood. The mass is o m. o 63 mill, 
(horizontal) x o m. o 3 i mill, (vertical). 

Below this mass of matted hair and opposite the outer two thirds of the right supra- 
orbital margin (almost parallel to and o m. 018 cent, above it) there is a fusiform 
scalp-wound revealing a second fracture of the frontal bone (Plate II, arrow a) 
coextensive with it, o m. o 3 i mill, long, gaping to the extent of almost o m. i o cent. 
This wound also was probably inflicted with an axe. This part of the supraorbital 
margin , including the right external angular process and the whole of the right 
malar bone , is depressed more than o m. o i o mill, below its original level , the 
zygomatic arch being broken at the articulation between the temporal and malar 
bones and the supraciliary margin of the frontal bone near its inner end. The two 
extremities of the orbital margin of the right malar bone are dislocated and have 
made holes in the skin of the face (arrow a'). 

A blow across the bony part of the nose has fractured both nasal bones (Plate II, 
arrow 3 ) and depressed the lower fragments to the extent of o m. 007 mill. This 
blow probably destroyed the right eye and caused the injuries to the malar bone 
and supraorbital margin of the frontal just described. This blow was probably 
inflicted by means, of some blunt instrument such as a stick or the handle of an axe , 
the skin wounds being caused indirectly by the projection of fragments of broken 
bones. A blow on the left cheek with some edged to,ol , such as an axe , cut through 
the skin (plate II, arrow 4 ) and severed the malar from the superior maxilla along 
their line of meeting. The wound stops above at the lower border of the orbit and 
below at the anterior margin of the coronoird process of the mandible, from which 
a small strip has bfeen separated. Some pointed instrument such as a pike or spear - 
was driven into the left side of the head immediately below the ear (Plate III) : it 
smashed off the left mastoid process, the left occipital condyle and part of the 
margin of the foramen magnum and was prevented from damaging the medulla 
oblongata because its point was stopped by the anterior part of the lateral mass 
(superior articular process) of the atlas. Of these five separate blows it is clear that 
the first two and the fourth were caused in all probability by an axe, although it is 
just possible that a sword may have been used. The fifth was probably caused by a 
spear; for it is unlikely that a narrow-bladed sword could have been used to inflict 
the injury. Although it is possible that the same instrument that was used in inflicting 
wounds nos. 1 , 9 and 4 may have been employed in the case of n° 3 the fact that 
the clean cut skin incision of the former three is lacking in the case of the latter 



makes it most likely that another and much blunter instrument — probably a 
stick, possibly the handle of the spear, that inflicted the fifth wound — was used in 
the case of the third wound. Wounds A and 5 can only have been inflicted from the 
left side of the man attacked and from their situation and appearance it is probable 
that the other three wounds were also inflicted from the same side. 

It is clear that Saqnounri met his death in an attack by at least two and probably more 
persons armed with at least two (probably three or more) implements, one of 
which was probably an axe and another a spear. The absence of any injuries to 
the arms or to any other part of the body shows that no resistance could have been 
offered to the attack. It is quite possible that the wounds may have been inflicted 
while Saqnounri was lying down on his right side. 

It seems unlikely that a man i m. 70 a mill, in height could have received from the 
front or left side two horizontal wounds on the top of his head, if he were standing 
up, without making any attempt to fend the blows. 

Although there is no clear and conclusive evidence in favour of any one reconstruction 
of the fatal attack, I think the balance of evidence is in favour of the view that he 
was attacked while lying down (possibly asleep) either on the ground or on a low 
bed. This view would offer the most reasonable explanation of the fact that four 
of the five wounds are exactly horizontal. 

-For even if Saqnounri had been, attacked by men of his own stature or even by 
horsemen it is highly improbable that the wounds inflicted would be horizontal. 
They are much more likely to have been vertical or oblique. Whereas in the case 
of the victim being prone on the ground the blows would fall vertically and might 
thus be horizontal in the anatomical sense. 

It seems not improbable that Saqnounri was lying on his right side , probably asleep , 
when his assailants coming up behind him attacked him from above i. e. from his 
left side. Nevertheless there is always the possibility that he may have been felled 
by one blow — perhaps an arrow or spear-thrust through the occipito- atlantal 
joint — and then received the other four blows when lying prone upon the ground 
in an unconscious state. 

61052. Mummy of an unknown woman, perhaps the princess Meritamon 

(pi. IV). 

On page 53 g of Les Momies royales M. Maspero states that from certain analogies 
which the coffin containing this mummy presents to that of the lady Rai' he is led 
to believe that Sonou, whose name is inscribed on the coffin, was the husband or 
son of Rai ; and that the queen , at whose court he was majordomo , could he none 
other than Nofritari. From the hieratic writings upon the shroud enveloping the 
mummy it appears that the latter is the body of the « royal daughter, royal sister 
Meritamon ». 

M. Maspero unrolled the wrappings on June 30 th , 1886 and the condition of affairs 
thus revealed aroused in his mind grave doubts as to the identity of the woman’s 



body which was then brought to light (vide op. cit., p. 5 3 9 and 54 o). He is inclined 
to believe that the mummy of Princess Meritamon may have been destroyed and 
replaced by a body embalmed at some earlier period — perhaps even at the time 
of the Middle Empire. 

sQuand on eut ouvert le linceul, on se trouva en presence d’une momie a moitiA 
dApouillAe de ses bandelettes, et d’un aspect particular. Elle a la t&te penchAe sur 
1 ’Apaule droite, la m&choire pendante, la bouche bAante et tirAe vers la droite. La 
poitrine est soulevAe violemment , les Apaules sont contractAes , les bras se jettent 
en avant d’un geste raide, les mains se tordent, la jambe droite s’enlace autour de 
la gancbe, les pieds sont crispes : le corps entier est comme agitA des derniers 
mouvements de I’agonie. Est-ce la un fait accidentel, ou bien devons-nous croire, 
qu’au moment ou le personnage a AtA prepare pour la tombe, 1 ’usage n’avait pas 
encore prAvalu de disposer toujours les cadavres dans une attitude de repos [vide 
supra — my remarks on the mummy of Saqnounri] : on momifiait les gens comme 
la mort les prenait. Les tombes du Moyen Empire que j’ai ouvertes a GAbAlAi'n, en 
1886, nous donnent a cet Agard des renseignements prAcieux. Les quatre cercueils 
intacts qu’elles nous ont rendus contenaient des momies fort semblables a la momie 
qui nous occupe. Elies Ataient, elles anssi, dans 1 ’attitude ou I’agonie les avait 
laissAes, la tAte inclinAe, la bouche hAante, les mains contractAes, les jambes rame- 
nAes 1 ’une sur 1 ’autre ( Rapport sur les fouilles et travaux exicuUs en Egypte pendant 
Vhiver de i 885 - 1886 — Bulletin de Vlnstitut igyptien, 1886, p. 210). Ajouter a 
cela d’autres indices , la lAgAretA du corps , la facility avec laquelle la peau se brise 
ou se dAtache en Readies, le dAcharnement du cr≠ la momie, qui ressemble 
tant aux momies de GAbAlAin , n’a presque point de ressemblance avec celles d’Ahmos 
I", de la reine Anbapou, de Saqnounri. Ge serait plutot une momie de la XII° ou 
de la XIII" dynastie, que les gardiens auraient enlevAe de son tombeau pour 
remplacer la momie perdue de la reine Miritamon r> (Ijes Momies royales, p. 54 o . 

Tbe body, the appearance of which has been so graphically described by M. Maspero 
in the passage just quoted, is that of a small, old woman, roughly embalmed, 
shrunken, distorted and desiccated. The legs are partly flexed and the left foot is 
crossed over the right so that a direct measurement of height in not possible ; hut 
I have estimated the stature as 1 m. A 70 mill. 

The embalming -wound had been made in the usual position in the left flank and the 
body -cavity was packed with pads of linen soaked in a solution of resin in the 
manner customary in the times of the XVIII th dynasty. The pelvis is packed with a 
hard mass of resin and aromatic sawdust and a small quantity of similar material 
is smeared over the perineum, but not in sufficient quantity to hide the rima 
pudendi, as was the custom in the middle and later periods of the XVIII th dynasty. 
The body was enveloped in large quantities of linen soaked in a solution of resin, 
which is peculiarly distinctive of the XVIII th dynasty. 

It is very difficult to determine the period at which this body was mummified and the 
reason why it was not placed in the customary mummy-position. For in the 
mummies of the Ancient and Middle Empires, found by Flinders Petrie, Quibell, 



Lythgoe and Mace and other archaeologists, the body was put into a position of 
repose, so that the condition in which this body was left cannot be used as evidence 
for the determination of its age. In the case of Saqnounri we came to the conclusion 
that the neglect of the customary toilet was evidence of haste : perhaps also in 
t his case there was some similar reason , of which however we have no knowledge. 
The condition of the skin, as described by M. Maspero, is due to desiccation 
rather than to the action of any preservative, although we have seen on the peri- 
neum some of the aromatic paste such as was used in preparing the mummies of 
Saqnounri and Anhapou (vide infra'). On the whole I am inclined to refer this 
mummy to the same period as the two mummies just mentioned. The skull and 
face conform to the Egyptian type. The ears are pierced. The skull exhibits large 
symmetrical thinning of both parietal bones, such as is common in the remains of 
the Egyptian aristocracy from the time of the Ancient Empire onward. The cranium 
is a short, relatively broad ovoid : the face is a small oval with pointed chin. All 
the teeth on the left side of the upper jaw are carious excepting only the canine 
and the third molar; and the first and second left lower molars are reduced to mere 
carious stumps. 

The skull is o m. 179 mill, long, o m. i 36 mill, broad, the minimum frontal 
breadth is o m. 09 A mill., the upper facial height is o m. 073 mill, and the 
bizygomatic breadth is 0 m. 198 mill. The bigonial breadth is 0 m. 08 5 mill. 

The dimensions of the nose cannot be measured directly , because the soft parts are 
pressed down, overlapping the bony nares; but the length and breadth are approxi- 
mately o m. o 55 mill, and 0 m. 09 5 mill, respectively. 

The left orbit is o m. o 43 mill, broad and 0 m. o 36 mill. high. 

There is a scalp wound, apparently ante-mortem, on the occiput, such as might have 
been caused by a fall backward. 

The body has been badly damaged by grave-plunderers, the body-wall broken in, the 
right arm pulled off and the left fore arm separated. 

64053. The Mummy of Anhapou (pi. IV, fig. 2 , and V). 

This mummy was found in the coffin of the lady R&I, nurse of Queen Nofritari. 
But the body of Mi', which was put into a coffin bearing the name of a man, 
Pa-her-pet, had been replaced in ancient times by that of another woman, whose 
name was written on the shroud across the breast in difficult cursive hieratic, 
which M. Maspero has transliterated «Anh&pou» (Lee Mamies royales, p. 53 1). In 
the same memoir (p. 694) M. Maspero adds : «Je nh^site pas 4 identifier notre 
reine Anh&pou de D 4 ir el-Bahari avec la reine Anhapi, m&re de Honttomihi et 
femme ou concubine d’Ahmos I" a. 

From the study of the mummy itself I have obtained evidence , which makes it appear 
highly improbable that the embalming could have been done at a time later than 
the reign of Ahm6sis : in fact it is most likely that the body of Anh&pou was 
prepared for burial some time before that of the king. 




The mummy, which had a garland of flowers upon the neck, was unwrapped in the 
Boulac Museum on June 20 th , 1886 , by M. Maspero, who described the appearance 
of the body, when first exposed, in these words : «EUe 4tait entour4e de linges 
poudreux, gras au toucher, semblables a ceux qui entouraient les restes de Tiou&qen 
[Saqnounri]. Des paquets de cheveux tress4s 4taient intercal4s sous les premieres 
bandelettes. Le corps, mis a nu, fut trouv4 en bon 4tat» (op. cit., p. 53 1 ). 

The body is that of a big, strongly-built woman (see Plate IV, Fig. 2 ), 1 m. 
685 mill, in height. 

Certain features revealed by an examination of its state of preservation raise for 
discussion some points of crucial importance in the evolution of the methods of 
embalming. The mummies of Saqnounri (n° 6io5i) and the woman (n° 6io52) 
in Sonou’s coffin had been treated in the same manner as the one now under 
consideration : but unlike the two former the body of AnMpou was put into the 
conventional mummy -position at the time it was embalmed. The appearance of 
the two mummies already described was such as to suggest a very rough and crude 
process of embalming, done in a hurry by some one other than professional 
embalmers, and at some place (in the case of Saqnounri M. Maspero suggests the 
field of battle) where the ordinary facilities for the practice of mummification were 
lacking. But there is nothing in AnMpou’s mummy to suggest haste or carelessness 
on the part of the embalmers. Her body had been put into the conventional 
position and had been treated with due care. Yet the mummy is in no better state 
of preservation than the bodies of Saqnounri and the unknown woman «A». It 
seems possible, therefore, that the mummy of AnMpou represents the stage to 
which the art of embalming had attained before the innovations seen in the 
mummies of Ahmosis, Nofritari and Rai, were introduced. This is the chief interest 
in the mummy under consideration. 

The body is fully extended, with the arms placed vertically at its sides and the hands 
fully extended at the lateral aspects of the thighs. The skin is of a dark brown " 
colour, soft, moist and tough, like oiled leather. The appearance of the mummy 
recalls that of the crudely-preserved bodies of the Coptic period, especially such as 
have been exposed for some days to the air. The early Christian mummies were 
made simply by packing the body in large quantities of common salt; and on 
exposure to the atmosphere the deliquescence of the salt renders the skin soft and 
flexible. The mummy of AnMpou is in precisely the same condition. 

In the case of Saqnounri I submitted a piece of skin to Professor W. A. Schmidt, of 
the Cairo School of Medicine , for chemical examination : but he was unable to find 
any excessive quantity of salt in it, in fact no greater quantity of sodium chloride 
than the normal tissues of the human body contain. 

Unlike all other mummies examined by me (excepting only those of the Coptic period) 
the epidermis was not removed during the process of embalming. It is still present," 
peeled off, it is true; but adhering to the bandages wherever they came into 
contact with the body. This proves that the body of AnMpou had not been put into 
a saline preservative bath, such as Herodotus, Diodorus, and other early writers 

Catal.du Mtise'e , n* 6io5i. 




s , 

describe, and of the employment of which the examination of the other mummies 
of the New Empire affords such a clear demonstration. It was embalmed by means 
of some procedure differing from that used in the case of Ahmosis and his imme- 
diate successors. 

The fact that the body -cavity was opened in the usual way by an incision in the left 
flank is sufficient to distinguish it from a Coptic mummy, in which no such incision 
was made, even if the circumstances under, which it was found, the nature of the 
coffin, the wrappings and the writing on them, and the mode of treatment of the 
hair, had not made it abundantly clear that we were dealing with a body mummi- 
fied fully two thousand years before the early Christian practice (circa 5 th to 7 th 
centuries A. D.) of dry-salt preservation was introduced. There can be no question 
that the mummy of AnhApou belongs to the same epoch as those of Saqnounri and 
the woman « An and is almost certainly anterior to that of AhmAsis. 

From a detailed examination of AnhApou s mummy and a comparison with the large 
series of other mummified bodies of known age I think that we can with some 
confidence reconstruct the process that in all probability was employed in embal- 
ming her body. 

The usual incision was made in the left flank and part of the contents of the body- 
cavity removed. Salt was then applied, in all probability, to the surface of the skin 
of the whole body ; and after a time the excess of salt was removed and aromatic 
powdered wood was sprinkled over the whole body, which was then wrapped in 
large quantities of linen saturated with a solution of resin. 

The condition of the perineum is quite unlike that of any other mummy of the New 
Empire known to me and recalls in every particular that of the crudely embalmed 
bodies of the early Coptic period (see First Report on the Human Remains found dur- 
ing the Archaeological Survey of Nubia, volume II, 1 9 1 0, p. a 1 9). It is well described 
in M. Maspero’s monograph [op. cit., p. 533 ) in these words : «Les organes gAni- 
tauxsont ouverts et n’Ataient remplis ni de chiffons, ni, comme c’est le cas ailleurs, 
dune pAte noirAtre mAlAe de natron et de rAsine. On distingue parfaitement les 
\ petites levres , le capuchon et 1 ’emplacement du clitoris. La vulve est largement 
fendue (0 m. 07 cent, de la fourchette au capuchon). La paroi vaginale est en 
bon Atat, et les plis transversaux n’ont pas disparu : une dAchirure (post mortem?), 
situAe un peu a droite a 0 m. o 3 cent, en arriere de la fourchette, Atablit une 
co mm unication entre le vagin et le rectum : au dela et a 0 m. 08 cent, de profon- 
deur, le toucher rAvAle I’existence d’un corps de la grosseur du doigt qui semble 
Atre 1 ’utArusfl. 

The pelvic viscera are still in situ, a very exceptional state of affairs in a New Empire 
mummy. By the deliquescence of the salt the skin has become softened and flexible 
and, as AnhApou was a very stout young woman at the time of her death, the usual 
shrinkage of the subcutaneous tissue has thrown the skin into numerous folds. This is 
especially the case in the face, which has become greatly distorted, partly for the rea- 
sons just mentioned , but also because some hard object of complicated pattern (pro- 
bably a pectoral ornament) has been pressed against the swollen skin of the face. 



The scalp has become separated from the cranium on all sides and especially over 
the left temple has been raised up into a large bladder, from the sur- 
face of which the hair has been separated. 

Under these circumstances it is useless to attempt to make any measu- 
rements of the head or to form an estimate of its racial traits. 

The hair was dressed in a peculiar manner (Plate V and Figure 1 ), which 
in itself i$ sufficient to indicate the beginning of the New Empire as 
the date of the mummy. The hair from an area of roughly k square 
centimetres was separated and plaited for a distance of about o m. 
o3 cent., then divided into three (or more) wisps each of which 
was tightly plaited in the form of an ear of wheat. The common plait 
and the stalks of the Rears of wheats were then thickly smeared with 
a paste, apparently of a resinous material. This process was repeated 
until all the hair was plaited and the scalp was furnished with a mass of heavy 
wheat -ear -like plaits (Plate V). 

61054. The Mummy of the Lady Rai (pi. VI and VIII). 

On page 58 a of Les Mamies royales reference is made to « quelques cercueils de 
moindre importances, the first of which bears the name Pa-her-pet. 

On June 96 th , 1909, I unrolled the bandages from the mummy contained in this 
coffin. A large quantity of linen of moderately fine texture surrounded the mummy. 
The bandages had been soaked in a solution of resin in the manner distinctive of 
the early part of the XVIII th Dynasty. This fact caused me some surprise in view 
of the fact that Pa- her -pet’s coffin was made in the XX th Dynasty : but the finding 
of ins criptions upon the wrappings removed all doubt that it was an early XVIII th 
Dynasty m umm y with which we were dealing. For the name that I found written in 
ink upon the bandages was deciphered by M. Daressv as Rat, obviously the lady 
whose coffin had been used for the mummy of AnMpou [vide supra). The epoch in 
which she lived is known precisely, for she is described [Les Mamies royales, 
p. 53 o) as having been the « nurse of Queen Nofritari», the consort of Ahmosis I, 
the first king of the XVIII th Dynasty. 

In the process of unrolling the wrappings many broad bandages were first removed : 
some of these had been wound in a circular manner, others spirally, around the 
body. Then a series of shrouds was exposed; and when these were removed the 
trunk was exposed, but the limbs were still invested in great quantities of narrow 
spirally -wound bandages. All the linen used in wrapping the body was of the same 
texture, for the practice of employing materials of very varied degrees of fineness, 
which obtained during the XIX th to the XXII^ Dynasties, had not yet come into vogue. 

The mummy of Ral is the most perfect example of embalming that has come down to 
us from the time of the early XVIII th Dynasty, or perhaps even of any period. 

The Lady Rai was 1 m. 5 io mill, in height, and, as her teeth are only slightly worn, 
she was probably still youthful at the time of her death. But the mummy is so 


perfect and undamaged that no attempt was made to examine the bones for more 
definite evidence upon the question of age. 

She was a slim, gracefully-built woman with small or only moderately full breasts, 
which are now flattened against the chest by the pressure of the bandages. 

She had a small oval face, graceful and well-proportioned; and so well preserved 
that she is the least unlovely of all the mummies of women that have been spared. 
The chin is small and pointed; the upper teeth somewhat prominent; the nose 
small, narrow and well-shaped. She has abundant masses of hair, apparently her 
own, elaborately arranged in a multitude of small plaits, which were then clumped 
together to form two large club-shaped masses, each o m. 98 cent, long and 0 m. 
o55 mill, in diameter, hanging down in front of the shoulders on to the chest 
(see Plates VI and VIII). The upper plaits are twice the thickness of those in the 
lower part of the mass , being respectively one centimetre and five millimetres in 
diameter. Each mass of hair was carefully wrapped in a spirally arranged 
bandage, which I left in situ upon the left side (Plate VI, Fig. 2), but removed 
upon the right. 

No attempt was made to unravel the tangle of intertwined plaits and determine their 
arrangement ; for to have done so would have damaged this unique mummy , which 
alone displays a characteristic mode of hair -dressing, well-known in the statuary 
of the New Empire. 

The body and the face were covered with a thin layer of a mixture of sand and 
powdered resin, some of which can be seen in Plate VI, Fig. 2. 

The skin is now reddish-brown in colour, but where the salt in the skin is deliquescing 
it is becoming blackened. 

The hands are very small, delicately formed and almost childish in appearance. The 
fingers are fully extended and rest upon the thighs, the left hand being a little 
further forward than the right. 

The embalming- wound upon the left side of the abdomen is fusiform in shape and 
vertical in direction. It is 0 m. ia 4 mill, long and 0 m. o 35 mill, wide; its inner 
margin is o m. 070 mill, from the middle line : its upper end is near the costal 
margin and its lower close to the anterior superior spine of the ilium. The wound 
was stuffed with a plug of fine linen , freely sprinkled with a mixture of sand and 
powdered resin; and there is the impression of a fusiform plate, which was placed 
over the embalming- wound. This form of plate is distinctive of the XVIII th Dynasty. 

There is no resinous layer covering the perineum. The labia majora are in close 
apposition. The pubic hair has not been removed. 

Without disturbing the large mass of hair it is impossible to obtain accurate measure- 
ment of the skull. The cranial length (together with the hair) is 0 m. 190 mill.; 
and o m. 1&0 mill, is a rough estimate of the cranial breadth. 

The height from chin to vertex of skull is 0 m. 186 mill. : total facial height (chin to 
fronto- nasal suture) is 0 m. 112 mill. : upper facial height (alveolar edge to 
fronto-nasal sature) is 0 m. 06 1 mill. : bizygomatic breadth, 0 m. 127 mill.; 
minimum frontal breadth, 0 m. 100 mill. : external orbital breadth 0 m. io 3 mill.; 



and the nose is o m. o5o mill, long -and o m. o3o mill/ at the alse, which, 
however, were somewhat dilated during the process of embalming. 

On the right wrist there is a barrel -shaped, carnelian bead, o m. oai mill, by o m. 
006 mill. 

61055. The Mummy supposed to be that of Nofritari (pi. VII). 

In the gigantic coffin bearing Queen Nofritari’s name there were «une momie d’assez 
mauvaise apparence, et un cercueil plus petit, caU par des tampons de toile, oil 
gisait une momie tres soignee. On trouva parmi les chiffons un lambeau d’&offe 
qui sera d^crit plus tard, et sur lequel etait dessin^ un portrait de Ramses III. Nous 
crfimes tous que la momie sans caisse avait <$te introduite dans le cercueil quand 
on transporta les corps A la cachette, et que 1 ’autre momie repr&entait la reine 
Nofritari. La premiere momie fut done re!4gu4e dans les magasins, ou elle achera 
de se corrompre et rdpandit bientot une telle odeur qu’il devint ndeessaire de s’en 
dtffiarrasser. M. $mile Brugsch-Bey Touvrit, au mois de septembre 1 88 5 , pendant 
mon absence. On reconnut qu’elle et/t emmaillot^e avec soin, mais le cadavre fut 
5 peine expose a 1 ’air qu’il tomba litt^ralement en putrefaction et se mit a suinter 
un pus noir&tre d’une puanteur insupportable. C’etait probablement la momie de 
Nofritari)) (Mas peso, Les Monties royales, p. 535, and 536 The body was 
«enterr£ provisoirement, car il menacait de tomber en putrefaction)) (p. 5 5). 
The body is 1 m. 610 mill, in height and is fully extended, with the limbs in 
almost the same position as Rat’s. The left forearm, however, is a little further 
forward, so that the left hand (now broken off and lost, no doubt by the grave- 
plunderers of the XX th Dynasty) may have partly covered the pudenda. The right 
hand and part of the forearm have been broken off and lost : they were placed like 
the corresponding structures in Rat’s mummy. 

The fragments of linen that still adhere to the mummy are of the dark yellowish and 
reddish brown colours (as the result of being impregnated with a resinous solution) 
usually found in bandages swathing XVIII th Dynasty mummies. The skin is blackened 
like most of the mummies of this period. As in most of the mummies of the first 
half of the XVIII th Dynasty the perineum is coated with a thick plate of solidified 
resinous paste. 

At the time of her death Nofritari had very little hair on her head and the vertex was 
quite bald. Elaborate pains had been taken to hide this deficiency. Twenty strings, 
composed of twisted human hair, were placed across 'the top of her head; and to 
these were attached numerous tight plaits, each about o m. 3o cent, long, 0 m. 
009 mill, wide and 0 m. 00 5 mill, thick, which hung down as far as the clavicle. 
Other plaits were tied to her own scanty locks. The appearance of these plaits is 
not unlike that of the modern Nubian women’s hair. 

In appearance Nofritari was not unlike the younger woman Rat, who is supposed to 
have been her nurse ; and she also resemhles the elder of the two women found in 
the tomb of Amenothes II at BiMn el-Molouk. 




The mouth is slightly open : the teeth are healthy , but well worn ; and the upper teeth 
are even more prominent than Rat’s. 

The body is very emaciated and it is impossible to recognise any trace of the breasts , 
probably by reason of senile atrophy. 

The embalming- wound (o m. 120 mill, by 0 m. 060 mill.) is precisely like Rai’s 
in position and form, excepting that it gapes more. It is plugged with linen, 
smeared with black resinous paste, which bears the impression of the leaf- like 
plate that once covered it. 

The cranium is of a broad sphenoid form , being as much as 0 m. 1 5 5 mill, broad (mea- 
suring-instrument inserted between the plaits of hair) — a figure strongly suggestive 
of alien extraction, even if some allowance be made for the resin -encrusted scalp. 

The length of the cranium is estimated at o m. 1 84 mill, (with scalp). 

The total facial height is 0 m. 112 mill.; upper facial height, 0 m. 06 9' mill. ; minimal 
frontal breadth, 0 m. 101 mill. ; external palpebral breadth , 0 m. io3mill.; bizygo- 
matic breadth, 0 m. i 3 i mill.; bigonial breadth, 0 m. 096 mill.; interorbital 
breadth om. 025 mill.; left orbit, 0 m. o 4 i mill. by o m. o 34 mill.; and right orbit; 
0 m. o 42 mill, by 0 m. o 32 mill.; and the chin-vertex projection 0 m. 178 mill. 
The nasal height is 0 m. o 53 mill, and the (alar) breadth 0 m. 028 mill. 

It will be gathered from M. Maspero’s statement, which I have quoted above, that 
there is an element of doubt as to the identity of this mummy. All the evidence 
that I have set orth here is strongly corroborative of M. Maspero’s inference that it 
is Nofritari. If this is not Nofritari's mummy, it certainly belongs to her time. 

The Mummy of an unknown Woman «B» (pi. IX and X). 

This mummy was unwrapped by M. Maspero in the year 1886, who for reasons set 
forth in detail in (Lea Momies royales, p. 55 1 and 552 ) suggested 
that it might be the body of Ramses I. 

But when I opened the coffin in June, 1909, I found the mummy of 
a naked woman , embalmed in the manner distinctive of the earlier 
part of the XVIII th Dynasty. The technique of mummification presents 
a very close resemblance to that displayed in the remains of Rai. 
The mummy is that of an elderly, white-haired , partially bald woman , 
1 m. 670 mill, in height. 

The skin is blackened, as in Nofritari’s mummy, and the face is 
coated with black, shining resin -like material, to which linen 
bandages are adhering. Fragments of a coiffure such as that worn 
by Ral are present; but in this case it is of the nature of a wig 
interplaited with the old lady’s own scanty hair (Fig. 2). 

She has a comparatively short, broad, ovoid head, which however 
cannot be measured by reason 6f the fragments of the wig matted 
against the scalp. The face is short and ovoid; and the chin is pointed but 



It is curious to recall that this member of the royal family, who was certainly contem- 
poraneous with Rai and Nofritari, should also like them have projecting upper 
teeth. Is this an indication of relationship between these three ladies ? 

There are small perforations in the lobules of the ears. 

The embalming- wound (o m. 116 mill, by 0 m. o 5 o mill.) resembles that of Rai 
and Nofritari (Plate IX). 

There is no perineal coating of resin, as there was in the case of Nofritari. In this 
respect, as well as in the symmetrical apposition of the labia majora to form a 
linear rima pudendi, this mummy resembles that of Rai. 

The breasts are small and senile and are placed very low on the chest wall. 

The body has suffered considerably at the hands of ancient grave -plunderers. The 
head is broken off the trunk at the neck (Plate IX). The right hand is missing. 

The cranium and face are so encrusted with resinous material, bandages and hair 
that few measurements can be made. 

The total facial height is o m. 1 q 3 mill.; upper facial height, o m. 066 mill.; the 
bizygomatic diameter is 0 m. og 4 mill.; and the minimal frontal breadth is 0 m. 
096 mill. 

The bi-humeral diameter is o m. 337 mill.; the bi-acromial 0 m. 990 mill.; thebi-iliac 
(crests) diameter, 0 m. g 4 g mill.; and the bi-trochanteric diameter o m. 9 56 mill. 

The length of the humerus is estimated at 0 m. 995 mill.; and from the line 0 the 
elbow flexure to the wrist 0 m. 967 mill. 

61057. The Mummy of King Ahmosis I (pi. XI and XII). 

This mummy was unrolled on June 9 th , 1886, by M. Maspero (op. cit., p. 534 ). On 
the neck there was a garland of flowers identified by D r Schweinfurth as Delphinium, 
orientale. The hieratic inscriptions written in ink on the bandages confirm the 
indications afforded by the hieroglyphic characters on the coffin that this is the 
mummy of Ahm6sis. The name ol his son and successor, by whose order the body 
was embalmed, also occurs on a fragment of the original wrapping which was in 
contact with the skin; and the outer wrappings hear the name of the Priest-king 
Painotmou of the XXI“ Dynasty, in whose reign the body was rewrapped. Of this 
mummy’s wrappings and coffin M. Maspero says : «Cercueil et maillot, Ahmos 
nous offre done un type prdcieux de ce qu’ 4 tait Tart de Tembaumement dans les 
premiers temps de la XVIII" dynastie. Les 4 toffes employees 4 taient g4n4ralement 
grossi&res , jaun&tres, d 4 coup 4 es en bandes assez larges. Le lacis des bandelettes 
4tait interrompu d’espace en espace par la presence d’une piece de toile, Atendue 
A plat dans le sens de la longueur. Le corps m£me 4 tait enseveli dans un linceul, 
nou 4 au-dessous des pieds et au-dessus de la t 4 te. Le tout forme une couche assez 
mince de cinq ou six centimetres d’ 4 paisseur n (p. 534 ). 

The body is 1 m. 635 mill, in height and the arms and fingers are fully extended at 
the sides of the body. Unlike the condition noticed in the mummies already described, 
the right hand is placed slightly further forward on the thigh than the left (Plate XI). 



The mummy of Ahmosis has suffered at the hands of ancient grave -plunderers, the 
head having been broken off the trunk and the nose smashed. It would, no doubt, 
have shown more evidence of this rough treatment if it were not for its strength 
and stony hardness, as the result of the application of an abundant layer of black 
resinous paste to the surface of the whole body. 

The head, both face and scalp, are still thickly encrusted with this black material 
(Plate XII), which however is not abundant enough to hide the ringlets of mode- 
rately long, dark brown, wavy hair, with which the head is thickly clad. 

The paste or paint on the face hides all trace of facial hair, but under the chin, in a 
fold of skin which was coated only with wax, traces of a beard were found, h 
millimetres long, and of the same, or perhaps a slightly lighter shade, than the 
hair covering the scalp. 

Like all the mummies of the earlier XVIII th Dynasty King Ahm6sis had a compara- 
tively small face and no prominent features with the possible exception of the 
nose. In this respect these rulers present a marked contrast to many of their 
successors in the XIX th Dynasty and later. 

The nose, which is now broken, was small and narrow, but not very prominent. 
The small face is ovoid and the chin narrow. The superciliary ridges are fairly 

A feature already noticed in the three women of this Dynasty, whose mummies I have 
described, occurs also in Ahmosts and Thoutmosis II that is* the prominence of 
the upper teeth, which may possibly be a family trait. 

With the head encrusted with a thick layer of material of stony hardness it is not 
possible to obtain accurate cranial measurements. The actual length of the head in 
its present state, i. e. including hair and wrappings, is o m. 907 mill., and the 
breadth 0 m. 171 mill.; but by boring holes through the lateral aspects of the 
carapace the actual breadth of 0 m. 1 56 mill, is obtained. The basi-bregmatic 
height is 0 m. 1A0 mill. : minimal frontal breadth is 0 m. 100 mill, (with hair 
and resin, 0 m. 1 A 3 mill.) : total facial height, 0 m. 1 1 k mill.; upper facial 
height o m. 073 mill.; nasal height and breadth, 0 m. o 55 mill, and 0 m. 
o 3 o mill., respectively; bizygomatic breadth, 0 m. i 33 mill. : bigonial breadth, 
0 m. 097 mill.; interorbital breadth 0 m. 099 mill.; right orbit, o m. 0A6 mill, 
by 0 m. o 38 mill., and left orbit, 0 m. oA 5 mill, by 0 m. o 35 mill. 

The cranial form is what Sergi calls «beloid». 

The cranial cavity is very tightly packed with linen, and as this procedure, through 
common after the time of Ahmosis , is not known to have been practised before his 
time, it is a matter of crucial importance in the history of the technique of embal- 
ming to study the details of the operation in this mummy. This is all the more 
important because the method of packing the cranium in the mummy under 
consideration presents highly exceptional features, which seem to bear out the 
suggestion that in it we are really studying the earliest evidence of the introduction 
of a new practice, which was only in the experimental stage at the time of the 
death of Ahm6sis. 



The necessity or the desirability of attempting such a curious procedure as the removal 
of the brain and the introduction of antiseptic packing materials into the brain-case 
may have first presented itself to the embalmer when he had to deal with the corpses 
of persons, like Saqnounri, whose heads had been battered in the wars incidental 
to the expulsion of the Hyksos. Whether this be so or not, there is no evidence to 
show that, before the time of Ahmosis , any attempt had ever been made to remove 
the brain in the process of mummification. 

After the time of Ahmdsis it was the custom to extract the brain by passing an instru- 
ment through one of the nostrils and forcing a passage into the brain-case by that 
route , as I have described in detail elsewhere ( « A Contribution to the Study of 
' Mummification in Egypt ». — Memoires prisentds a I’lmlilut igyptien, tome V, fas- 
cicule I, 1906, pp. i- 5 A, 19 plates). In this mummy it is very doubtful if such 
a method was employed. There is no distortion of the nose, such as usually results 
from this operation, nor is the nasal septum damaged in any way or deflected. But 
as the nasal fossae are tightly packed with linen, which it was considered unde- 
sirable to remove , one cannot state dogmatically that the nasal route was not used. 
Against such a supposition is the fact that the cranial cavity is tightly packed with 
linen right down to the foramen magnum; and it seems incredible that this could 
have been accomplished through such a narrow cleft as either of the nasal fossae of 
this mummy, without damaging the septum. 

Moreover, there is the curious and significant fact that the atlas is missing; and the 
upper surface of the axis and the neighbouring part of of the occipital bone are 
thickly coated with a mass of black, shining material (? resin), which must have 
been applied directly to the surfaces of the bones. This raises the possibility — and 
from the circumstances of the case it must not be regarded as more than a possi- 
bility — that through an incision upon the left side’ of the neck the atlas was 
excised and the brain removed through the foramen magnum, which would be 
exposed by such an operation. In favour of this interpretation there is the fact that 
the free edge of the skin on the left side of the neck (in the submaxillary region) 
has the appearance of having been cut; and further, although the atlas is missing, 
the axis and occipital bone are in situ and undamaged. On the contrary the difficult 
operation of excising the atlas is hardly the kind of procedure one would expect an 
XVIII th Dynasty embalmer to attempt. 

The set of teeth is complete and in good condition. They are only slightly worn, 
especially the third molars. There is nothing definite to enable one to estimate the 
age Ahmosis had attained. But the state of his teeth , hair and the base of the skull 
suggest that be was a young man. From the examination of his mummy I should 
have estimated Ahmosis’ age as not more than Ao years, but there is definite histo- 
rical evidence that he reigned at least 39 years, and apparently had come of age at 
the time of his succesion. Nevertheless the fact that his mother survived him for ten 
years is further corroboration of his youth. 

The body, like the head , was smeared with a thick layer of black paste, which prevents 
an examination of the embalming wound. 

Catal. du Mutee , n° 6io5i. 




The perineum was covered with a thick mass of resinous material; and the external 
genitalia were also coated with the same substance. 

The thorax is only 20 centimetres wide, the narrowness being due, no doubt, in large 
measure to compression by the embalmer’s bandages post mortem. 

The oblique length of the femur is estimated at about 0 m. kko mill. : oblique length 
of the tibia, 0 m. 375 mill. : oblique length of humerus, 0 m. 3 o 8 mill.; and of 
radius, 0 m. 2 64 mill. 

The biacromial diameter measures 0 m. 29 a mill. : bi - iliac (crests) diameter 0 m. 
2i3 mill.; bitrochanteric diameter 0 m. 2 hh mill. : and the distance between the 
anterior superior iliac spines, o m. 181 mill. 

The distance from the soles of the feet to the upper margin of the symphysis pubis is 
0 m. 871 mill.; from the latter to the suprasternal notch, 0 m. 465 mill.; and from 
the pubic symphysis to the umbilicus 0 m. i 55 mill. 

The length of a foot is 0 m. 212 mill. 

There is a curious concavity in the vertebral borders of the scapulae between the 
inferior angle and the spine. 

61058. The mummy of Amenothes I (pi. XIII). 

The wrappings of this mummy are in such perfect condition, with complete garlands 
in position, that M. Maspero decided to let it remain untouched. It has already 
been rewrapped twice — by the Priest-king Pai'not’mou and his son Masaharti. 

« La momie mesure 1 m. 6 5 cent, de longueur. Elle est rev 4 tue d’une toile orange , 
maintenue par des branches de toile ordinaire. Elle porte un masque en bois et 
en carton peint, identique au masque du cercueil. Elle est couverte de la t 4 te 
aux pieds de guirlandes de fleurs rouges, jaunes et bleues, parmi lesquelles le 
D r Schweinfurth a reconnu le Delphinium, orientate, la Sesbania eegyptiaca, Y Acacia 
Nihtica, le Carmanthus tinctorius. Une gu£pe , attir^e par Todeur, 4 tait entree dans 
le cercueil : enferm^e par hasard, elle s’y est conserve intacte et nous a fourni un 
exemple probablement unique d’une momie de gu£pe. 11 aurait &£ desirable de 
dlshabiller Amenhotpu comme les autres re is : les deux restaurations dont il a 
Tobjet ont dd laisser des traces dans le maillot, probablement une ou plusieurs 
inscriptions en hi£ratique, mentionnant des dates nouvelles. Toutefois f aspect que 
la momie pr&ente actuellement sous ses guirlandes est si joli que j’ai 4 prouv 4 quel- 
que scrupule a la d^rouler, tandis qu’elle est encore dans sa nouveaut 4 i> (p. 537). 

61059. The mummy of the Prince Siamon. 

Unrolled by M. Maspero, on June 29 th , 1 886 , who states (op. dt., p. 538 ) that it was 
the mummy of a child 0 m. 90 cent, in height, which had been plundered in ancient 
times and tbe body broken up : when it was restored , in the reign of Painot’mou of 
the XXI" dynasty, no trouble waff taken to replace the bones of the skeleton in their 
proper positions : they were simply thrown pell-mell into an oblong bundle. 



61060. The m um my of the Princess Sitamon. 

The mummy of a child, which has not been unrolled, but through a thin layer of 
bandages there can be felt a bundle of reeds surmounted by a skull, the whole being 
roughly i m. 2 0 cent, in length. M. Maspero states that although it would be inte- 
resting to find out whether there is any hieratic inscription on the inner wrap- 
pings, as in the case of Siamon, this false mummy is so curious and its general 
appearance so singular that he did not venture to disturb it (op. cit., p. 538 ). 

61061. The mummy of Honttimihou (pi. XIV). 

This mummy was accidentally damaged during its transport from Luxsor to Cairo, 
where it was unrolled in December 1882 (Maspero, op. cil., p. 544). 

« Les cheveux avaient 4 t 6 coupes et les tresses cach 4 es dans Tepaisseur du maillot. Sur 
la poitrine, un paquet assez gros renfermait une masse de natron blanc, pulverulent, 
tres caustique, qui enveloppait le coeur de la princesse. La momie 4 tait noire, assez 
mal prdparfe, mais en bon <$tat de conservations (op. cit., p. 544 ). 

The body had been wrapped in an enormous quantity of bandages saturated with a 
solution of resin. These have been chopped away in great part by grave-plunderers. 
No attempt has been made to clear away from the mummy the remains of these 

The face is considerably damaged, the soft parts of the nose and some areas of the 
cheeks having disappeared. Large linen plugs still remain in the nostrils. 

The body is packed with resin-saturated pads of linen. 

As is usual in the early part of the XVIII th dynasty the hands are in front of the 

Honttimihou was an old woman 1 m. 5qo mill, in height. She had a wide, flattened, 
beloid cranium; and her face was very short, broad and oval, quite unlike that of 
any of her contemporaries known to us. However, M. Maspero is of a different 
opinion, for he says «la momie est du m 4 me type que les momies des princesses 
d<$ja d(5crites de la XVIII' dynasties, and he adds the statement, which may give 
support to his view, that « sur la poitrine est trac< 5 , en hi^ratique , le nom de la fille 
royale, soeur royale, Spouse royale Honttimihou » (op. cit., p. 543). 

Her teeth are well worn : the right upper first premolar is carious, and there is an 
alveolar abscess at the root of the first molar tooth near it. 

The cranium is o m. 181 mill, long and 0 m. 1 4 3 broad, but the chin -vertex 
projection is only 0 m. 170 mill. The total facial height is 0 m. 107 mill., the 
upper facial height 0 m. 067 mill, and the moderately prominent nose is 0 m. 
o 5 o mill , in height and o m. o 3 o mill, in breadth. 

There is practically no hair on the top of the head and only scanty locks at the sides 
and on the occiput. These are stained a brilliant reddish (? henna) colour, and are 
inter plaited with strands of hair of a black colour, forming large plaits 0 m. o 2 cent, 
wide, all attached at the back of the head. 

3 '. 



61062. The mummy of Hent-m-pet (pi. XV, XVI and XVII). 

I removed the wrappings from this mummy in June, 1909. 

The condition of the wrapped body when found is shown in plate XV. A large hole 
seen in the front of the chest is the work of a robber, either ancient or modern, 
who was searching for jewellry on the neck and chest of the m umm y 

After removing the fragmentary remains of the shroud and the five encircling bandages 
(pi. XV); the mummy was found to be invested with a series of loosely -applied, 
circularly- and spirally-wound bandages; and under them a number of longitudinal 
sheets and pads. 

When these were removed the body of an old woman, 1 m. 6 i 3 mill, in height, was 
exposed. The legs were enswathed in bandages; and these were allowed to remain. 
The whole of the chest was hidden by a large and elaborately- contracted wig 
(pis. XVI and XVII). In addition to this there were found upon the left side of the 
head the remains of another wig resembling the coiffure seen in Rat’s m umm y 
(pi. VI). The wigs were made of wavy, brown hair; but the old lady’s own hair 
was freely streaked with grey. 

Considerable pressure had been applied to the face, presumably by the embalmers 
when applying the bandages; and the nose is completely flattened, so that the plugs 
of linen inserted into the nostrils by the embalmers have been squeezed out on to 
the upper lip. The gruesomeness of this disfigurement has been increased by the fact 
that the usual toilet of the face had not been attended to : the skin is paper-like in 
consistency and has a pale yellow colour, as though it had been painted with ochre. 

The face is small and elliptical and conforms to the Egyptian type. The total facial 
height is 0 m. 1 iA mill, and the upper facial height, 0 m. 062 mill. : the bizygo- 
matic breadth is 0 m. 1 23 cent.; and the minimal frontal breadth is 0 m. 090 mill. 
The chin -vertex projection is 0 m. 198 mill. The teeth are well-worn. 

The remains of hair and wig upon the head prevent any measurements of the crani um 
being made : but its breadth is estimated as about 0 m.»i4o mill. 

A space varying from 2 to A centimetres separates the inner wrappings from the body 
and suggests a shrinkage of the latter after the application of its bandages. 

On the left flank there is a vertical embalming-wound o m. 090 mill, long and 0 m. 
020 mill. wide. Its lower end is 5 centimetres above the anterior superior spine of 
the ilium. 

There is no coating of resinous paste anywhere on the surface of the body, such as we 
have seen in most of the mummies of the time of AhmAsis; and the style of mummi- 
fication represents a stage either anterior to that of the Ahmdsis or very much later. 
There is no perineal covering; but the vagina is plugged with linen. 

Both forearms have been broken off by grave -plunderers and only fragments of the 
right now remain : but the detached left forearm has been replaced in a position 
transversely across the body, below the wig (pi. XVI). 

In the case of the wig which is still in situ strings pass over the top of the head very 
much in the way we have already noticed in the case of Nofritari’s mummy. 



The large wig placed upon the chest (pi. XVI) is quite complete and in an excellent 
state of preservation. When flattened out (pi. XVII) it measures o m. 3 o cent, across 
and o m. al cent, from back to front. It consists of wisps of dark brown, wavy 
hair about o m. a 1 cent, long, the proximal end of each of which is bound round 
with string (pi. XVII, Fig. a). These proximal ends are arranged around three sides 
of an oblong, the posterior side 1 3 centimetres long and the two lateral sides, each 
q centimetres long; and are fixed by plaited strings, some of which pass across 
(fig. a) from one side of the oblong to the other. Among the wisps of hair a few 
plaits are found (see lower left hand corner of fig. a ). 

Along the fourth (anterior) side of the oblong there is a thin wisp of hair, tied at each 
end to the framework of the wig. To this is attached a series of small corkscrew 
curls of lighter brown hair, which form a fringe to hang down on the forehead , 
when the wig is worn (fig. i). Each curl is about i 3 centimetres long. 

In the right postero-lateral corner of the wig a similar fringe is tied (fig. i) : but for 
what purpose it is difficult to surmise. 

61063. The mummy of Sitkamos (pi. XVIII). 

In a poor coffin, made in the style of the XX th dynasty, was placed this earlier mummy 
of the ® royal daughter, royal sister, principal royal wife Sitkamos » , as the hieratic 
inscription on the linen covering the chest has been interpreted by M. Maspero 
[op. cit., p. 54 i). After removing the garlands which were placed on the breast 
and removing the outer shroud M. Maspero discovered (June 19 th , 1886) on an 
inner shroud another hieratic inscription written in ink , which made it plain that 
this m umm y was rewrapped at the same time as those of Ahmosis I and Siamon in 
the reign of Pamot’mou. 

This mummy was subjected to severe damage in ancient times. Grave-plunderers had 
chopped through the bandages and hacked away almost the whole of the anterior 
wall of the body (see pi. XVIII), broken off the left arm at the shoulder and 
smashed off the whole of the occipital region of the skull. 

In the black resinous paste, which is thickly smeared over what remains of the chest- 
wall (and in fact over the whole body), there are very sharply defined impressions 
of the pectoral ornament, sun collier ouoskhit a quatre rangs v , which excited the 
cupidity of the robbers, who worked such terrible havoc on this mummy. 

Sitkamos was a large, powerfully-built, almost masculine woman about 1 m. 620 mill, 
in height. The method employed in embalming is perhaps most like that seen in 
the mummy of Ahm6sis I; but the position of the hands, covering the pudenda, is 
quite exceptional if this is really as early as Ahmdsis, although I have called 
attention to an early approximation to this position in the mummy of Nofritari 
[vide supra ) , and the same position is seen in the mummy supposed to he Thout- 
mosis I [vide infra). The whole body, including the face, is thickly smeared with a 
black resinous paste, in which fine bandages are embedded. [A similar state of 
affairs is found in the mummy of Seti I of the XIX th dynasty]. It is, perhaps, 



characteristic of the XVIII th dynasty embalming to cover the perineum with a large 
cake of black resinous paste, as is the case in Sitkamos’ mummy. This practice began 
with Ahmfisis I, but is seen in its most characteristic form in the mummies of 
Amenothes II and the women left in his tomb in the Bib&n-el-Molouk. 

The whole back of the skull was smashed away, revealing the brain and its membra- 
nes, which are well-preserved. The fact that no attempt seems to have been made 
to clear out the cranial cavity is futher evidence of an early date. 

The nostrils were plugged with linen. The whole body cavity was tightly packed with 
linen, some of it soaked in a solution of resin. Scanty, black, wavy hair o m. a 3 cent, 
long, not plaited or dressed in any way, hangs down from the head. 

The cranium is o m. 1 5 □ mill, broad : the face is much bigger and more vigorous 
than that of most of the women of this period , with the exception of Anh&pou (vide 
supra ) , to whom Sitkamos presents certain points of resemblance. 

The total facial height is o m. 120 mill., the upper facial height is o m. 070 mill, 
and the chin-vertex projection is o m. 198 mill. 

The teeth are only moderately worn, the cranial sutures are open, and the hair is not 
yet streaked with while. These facts are no certain index of age, but suggest that 
Sitkamos could not have been much more than thirty years old. 

On the toes there are still visible the impressions of the string employed to fasten on 
the nails and epidermis. 

The back of the left thigh and the right gluteal fold have been gnawed by mice. 

61064. The mummy of the Royal Prince Sipaari pi. XIX). 

M. Maspero has described this prince as r a member of one of the royal families , which 
lived at Thebes ■» (Lex Momies royales, p. 58 a). 

With the assistance of Professor A. R. Ferguson I unrolled the wrappings of this 
m umm y in the Cairo Museum on September 9 th , 1 go 5 . 

After removing the lid of the coffin (fig. 1) the mummy was found wrapped in a dis- 
coloured shroud, tied around with three bandages (fig. 2), the whole being 1 m. 
09 cent. long. The mummy itself, without wrappings, is 0 m. 9 3 cent, in length. 

The following notes concerning the wrappings were made during the process of 
unrolling them. 

1 . The upper of the three bandages tied around the shroud is really a sheet of linen 
18 cent, wide, rolled up to form a bandage. One end is ragged, the other has a 
string fringe, 8 cent. long. It consists of linen of very close and regular texture, 
with 28 + qo threads to the square centimetre (warp and woof respectively). It was 
tied a simple knot on the left side. 

2 . Second bandage, 7.5 centimetres wide, folded three times : torn ends : tied 
behind knees. Linen of regular open mesh : 204-11 threads per centimetre. 

3 . Material and arrangement like (2); tied behind ankles. 

k. Shroud 1 m. 4 o cent, by 1 m. 3 o cent., wrapped around body : very close mesh 
( 254 - 23 ), selvedged borders. 



5 . A soft ragged shawl of oblong form, now very much torn, but originally 1 m. 
5o cent, x o m. 56 cent., laid on front of body, mesh i i + 20. 

6. A bandage a m. x o m. 20 cent, (mesh a a + 17) wound spirally (clockwise) 
around feet and ankles. Its end, rolled into a point, is fixed by being inserted in a 
hole torn for it in an underlying bandage. 

7 . Bandage 3 m. x 0 m. 3 o cent, (very irregular mesh, 3 o 4 - 15 ) begins behind 
hips, where the end is tucked under a preceding coil of same bandage, and proceeds 
spirally around the body up to the head. 

8 . Broad sheet, t m. 75 cent, x 0 m. 60 cent, (mesh i 4 + ai), folded and placed 
in front of the body throughout its whole length. 

9 . Similarly arranged sheet, 1 m. x o m. 60 cent., with coarse matting-like mesh, 

17 + 7. 

10 . Two loosely crumpled rags in front of body, a m. x 0 m. 60 cent, (same mate- 
rial as (1 4 )) and t m. i 5 cent, x 0 m. g 5 cent, (same material as (1 1)). 

11 . A very broad bandage, torn from a sheet with selvedged border, originally 
3 m. X 0 m. 5 cm. , wound spirally clockwise round body beginning at head and 
ending at ankles. Loose rough thread, 12 + 26. 

12 . Irregular fragment, 0 m. 09 cent, x o m. o 5 cent. (37 + 12), folded into an 
oblong and placed on right side of ankles. 

13 . Bandage, 4 m. 06 cent, xom.17 cent, (rough irregular mesh of uneven thread , 
2 1 + 1 5 ) , passed spirally around body from ankles to head. 

14 . Large irregular sheet, 1 m. 3 o cent, x 0 m. g 5 cent., (very fine thread, 29+1 9 , 
no selvedges), folded four times and placed in front of the body. 

15 . A large unselvedged sheet, a m. 35 cent, x 0 m. 60 cent, of coarse sacking 
(1 6 -+ 9 ), folded on itself, covers whole front of body. At the right corners, both 
at head and feet, there are long strips, which were originally tied to the correspon- 
ding left corners. 

16 . A sheet of cloth, 3 m. ao cent, x 0 m. 5 o cent, (very ragged thread, i 3 + a 4 ), 
folded into four layers, placed in front of upper half of the body. 

17 . Another folded sheet, a m. 01 cent, x 0 m. 5 o cent, (very regular thread, 

1 8 + 2 5 ) , covered right side of upper half of body. 

18 . Another covering lower part of body; very worn and ragged, originally i m. 
a 5 cent, x 1 m. ta cent, (texture exceptionally irregular, 9 + i 4 ). 

19 . This bandage and numbers (so), (aa), (a 3 ), (a 4 ), (a6) and (27) are all torn 
from the same sheet ( 2 0 + 1 3 ) , the edges of which are on number ( a 3 ). It passes 
spirally around the body from the head to the chest. 

20 . Starts where (1 9) ends and passes spirally down the body to the ankles. 

21 . A series of pieces of rag of varied texture, some with ink inscriptions. 

2 2 . Arranged like ( a 0 ). 

23 . A bandage, 5 m. x 0 m. 27 cent* with a thickly hemmed border and fringe 
(0 m. os 5 mill.) down one side. 

24 . Bandage passing spirally from middle of body up to head, in direction opposite 
to hands of clock. 



25. A stick extending whole length of body. 

26. Wound spirally around body from the head to the middle of the body. 

27. A bandage, 5 m. x o m. 09 cent., with one end fringed and selvedged and the 
cloth thread-drawn parallel to it, wound spirally around body from the feet to the 
middle of the body. 

28. Extending longitudinally in front of the body there was a ragged cloth not care- 
fully wrapped up; but fixed in front of the head by a piece of rag. Hieroglyphs 
written in ink upon it : also designs in red. 

29. Several loose pieces of rag in front of body. One piece with very ragged edges, 
i m. x o m. 06 cent, (very loose irregular thread, 18 + 21 ). 

30.. By this time what was left of the mummy presented the appearance shown in 
fig. 3 (pi. XIX). Three bands are tied around the body. They consist of linen of very 
close texture and regular fibres ( 19 + 13 ). 

On removing these bandages we found in front of the mummy in its whole length (3 1 ) a 
thick mass of cloth , consisting of two precisely similar sheets of fine linen (very ragged 
mesh, 3o + a3), folded many times. Each sheet is 1 m. 06 cent, long (i. e. in the long 
axis of the mummy) and 4 m. wide. One short border and one long are selvedged in 
each sheet. The other short border of each piece has a string fringe , on an average one 
string to every centimetre , but not at regular intervals. Each string is o m. 1 1 5 mill, 
long and consists of all the longitudinal threads of its own area interplaited. 

Thus the two cloths represent on original piece 3 m. 0 a cent, x 4 m. 

32. A series of long irregular strips of muslin tied in knots , all converging to a large 
reddish pear-shaped mass of discoloured cloth o m. 35 cent. long. The colour is 
due to some resinous solution and perhaps in part to blood-staining. A piece of 
palm -stick, 0 m. 43 cent, long, to which is adherent one of the pieces of muslin 
(regular mesh of exceptionally fine thread, 9 3 + 35). 

33. A wooden stick in contact with the mummy. 

34. A shroud in direct contact with the remains of the body, 4 m. o5 cent, x 0 m. 
0 4 cent. , folded longitudinally four times and rolled up , except where it forms a 
flat pad for the head. It is a muslin formed of very fine , but also very irregular and 
furry, threads (3o + 94 ) : it has a fringe of long plaited strings like (3 1 ). 

Amongst the folds of this shroud there were many barley stalks. 

35. A large lorn sheet like (3i) and folded like it. 

36. Another sheet like the last with a regularly -fringed edge. 0 m. 3 o cent, wide, 
folded four times. 

This wrapping was done in the XXI** dynasty, but is merely a rough reclothing of a 
mummy that had been stripped by plunderers. The details of the method practised 
in the XXI*‘ dynasty have been described by Mr. A. C. Mace and me in The Mummy 
of a Priestess of Amon ( Annales du Service, 1906 , pp. i55-i8a). 

When I had removed all these complicated series of wrappings, from which the simu- 
lacrum of a complete and properly- wrapped mummy had been built up, only the 
distorted skin and a few of the bones of a boy o m. 93 cent, in height .were found 
(fig. 4, pi. XIX). 



The soft pliable skin is of a light brown colour and forms a hollow shell which has 
become grossly distorted by pressure. The face has become flattened on the right 
side to such an extent that the mouth is almost vertical. 

The scalp has been torn off the right side of the skull and bent over on to the left side. 

The skin of the back , together with the vertebral column , most of the other bones 
hones of the skeleton, and all the viscera, are missing. The greater part of the right 
leg is wanting : the right femur (diaphysis o m. 21 cent.) but not the left is pre- 
sent (see fig. 4). The left tibia and fibula and foot are present. The right scapula 
is present, but not the left. 

The skull is very flat. The hair is cut short. The boy had a full set of deciduous teeth 
and presumably was about five or six years of age. Appearances suggest that he had 
been circumcised : but if so Sipaari is an exception to the general rule, for there 
are reasons for supposing that during the XVIII th dynasty and before then the 
operation was performed at the time of puberty (vide infra), 

61065. The mummy supposed to be that of Thoutmosis I (pis. XX, XXI and 

M. Maspero informs us ( The Struggle of the Nations, 1896 , p. a As) that «the coffin of 
Thoutmosis I ( in these quotations I have altered the spelling of names in accordance 
with M. Maspero’s latest transliterations in the Guide du Visiteur), was usurped by 
the priest-king Pinotmou I, son of Piankhi (Les Momies royales, p. 545), and the 
mummy was lostw. He adds further : — «I fancy that I have discovered it in 
mummy n" 5a83 [n° 6io65 of this catalogue], of which the head presents a 
striking resemblance to those of Thoutmosis II and III (ibid., pp. 58 1 , 58a )». 

In addition to the reasons given by M. Maspero in the above quotations, and at length 
in Les Momies royales, pp. 545, 5^0 and especially pp. 5 8 1 , 58a, the technique 
of mummification displayed in this specimen, as well as the position in which the 
arms are placed, indicates that the body was embalmed at a period earlier than 
that of Thoutmosis II and later than that of Ahm&sis I. Thus we have exceptionally 
strong corroborative evidence in support of M. Maspero’s suggestion, which was 
based upon family likeness. 

The nature of the resin -impregnated bandages with which the mummy is enswathied' 
can leave us in no doubt that the body was embalmed at some time during the 
XVIII th dynasty. The excellent state of preservation of the body and the firmness and ^ 
durability of the skin and tissues, indicate the attainment of a perfection in the art of 
embalming unknown before the time of Ahmosis I ; and the fact that this result has 
been attained without plastering the body with a thick layer of resinous paste may 
he regarded as evidence that the mummification was done at a period subsequent to 
that of Ahmosis. On the other hand the mummy of Rat affords positive evidence 
that such perfection was attainable even in the time of Ahm 6 sis. 

In the series of mummies so far considered it will be noticed that the hands , which at 
the commencement of the XVIII th dynasty were placed on the sides of the thighs , 

Catal. du Mutee, n° 6io5i. 



become shifted gradually further forward, until in the mummy of Sitkamos they 
were placed in front of the pudenda. In the mummy under consideration there can 
be no doubt (see pi. XX), that the hands, although broken off and removed by 
ancient grave -plunderers, were also placed in front of the genital area. This 
position is doubly significant, not only of the fact that this mummy is later than 
that of Ahm6sis and represents a phase in the changing customs of placing of the 
hands exemplified in the case of Sitkamos, but also of a greater antiquity than the 
mummies of Thoutmosis II and his successors. For with Thoutmosis II the custom 
of folding the arms was introduced (see pi. XXIII), which became the rule and 
remained in force until the coming of the priest-kings of the XXI** dynasty, when a 
reaction set in and the embalmers reverted to the custom in vogue at the commen- 
cement of the XVIII th dynasty ; and once more began to place the hands on the 
thighs or in front of the pudenda (see pi. LXVII et seq.). 

There are some curious exceptions to this general statement. In the mummy of the 
young uncircumcised prince found in the tomb of Amenothes II, and certainly con- 
temporaneous with it, both hands were in front of the pudenda (see Bulletin de I’lnsli- 
lut dgyptien, 5' s^rie, 1. 1, p. 22 b, also infra)-, and in one of the women found in 
the same tomb (Op. cit., p. 2 2 5), the right hand was placed against the thigh, 
while the left arm was flexed. Then again in the mummy of Touiyou (Thua), the 
mother of Queen Tiyi, both hands were in contact with the thighs : but in the 
mummy of her husband Iouiya (Yuaa), both arms are flexed in the way that was 
usual in his time. 

What these departures from custom may signify it is impossible to say : but I 
must emphasize the fact that, from the time of Thoutmosis II until the end of the 
XX th dynasty, no mummy of an adult man is known in which the arms were .not 

Seeing that some scholars have urged the view that the mummy under consideration 
is not that of Thoutmosis I , but is the body of Pinotmou I or some other priest- 
king of the XXI'* dynasty, it might be supposed that the placing of the arms in the 
position customary in the XXI*‘ dynasty lends support to that contention. But such 
an opinion is wholly untenable. The technique of embalming presents quite 
definite characteristics in the early XVIII th and the XXI* 1 dynasties respectively. The 
mummy under consideration conforms in every respect to the former and has none 
of the many peculiarly distinctive features of the latter mode of embalming. 

There is then abundant evidence for placing this mummy in the series between those 
of Ahmosis I and Thoutmosis II : and it is particularly unfortunate that we are 
unable, for the reasons stated above, to add the testimony of the mummy of Ame- 
nothes I to the discussion. Perhaps M. Maspero at some future time may give his 
consent to the use of the X-rays, and obtain a skiagram of the mummy of Ame- 
nothes I, which would show the positions of his arms, without disturbing the 
wrappings and garlands that now hide them from view. 

In addition to this archaeological evidence, in support of the identification of this 
mummy as the body of Thoutmosis I , there is the testimony of the physical charac- 



ters of the mummy itself, upon which M. Maspero based his suggestion. The points 
of resemblance not only to Thoutmosis II, but also to the whole group of early 
XVIII th dynasty royal mummies, are manifold. Amongst a group of short men — 
Ahm 6 sis I was 1 m. 635 mill, and Thoutmosis II 1 m. 684 mill. — this man was 
even more undersized, being only t m. 545 mill, in height. 

The most striking point of difference is the smallness , and especially the narrowness , 
of the cranium. 

When we come to examine the details of the mummy there are many features, trivial 
in themselves when considered individually, but the cumulative value of which is 
so great as to dispose of any further doubts as to its definite identification as 
Thoutmosis I or a contemporary. 

The rounding of the margins of the external auditory meatus (pi. XXII) makes it 
certain that the ear must have been plugged in the same manner as that of Thout- 
mosis II (pi. XXIV), where a ball of resinous material is still in situ. In this respect 
the mummy of Thoutmosis III (pi. XXVIII) resembles those of his two namesakes 
who came before him. By the time of Thoutmosis IV, however, this practice was 
given up and it became the custom to smear the ear with resinous paste, instead of 
putting a round plug into the aperture. In the mummy of Thoutmosis IV evidence 
of the custom of piercing the lobules of the ears is seen for the first time in a king 
of certain date, so far as I am aware, if we except the mummy of the unknown man 
«C», who was probably a contemporary of the person whose mummy we are dis- 
cussing and the mummy supposed to be Meritamon. The absence of such perforations 
in the mummy under consideration, as well as in Thoutmosis II and III, is further 
corroboration of its identification as Thoutmosis I. 

The position of the embalming wound (seen in pi. XX at the inner side of the forearm) 
agrees with that already described ( vide supra ) in other mummies of this period. 

The genitalia have been treated in a manner strikingly different from that shown (in 
pi. XI), in the case of Ahmdsis I. At first sight the body has the appearance (see 
pi. XX) of being that of a eunuch : but on closer examination a broad leaf, o m. 
067 mill, long and 0 m. o38 mill, wide, may he seen Battened against the peri- 
neum; and, to the left of it, there is a similar but slightly smaller mass flattened 
against the front and inner side of the left thigh. Whether these structures represent 
the whole of the pudenda or only the scrotum must remain uncertain. These facts 
become of special interest when the condition of the next three mummies to be 
described is taken into consideration. 

Apart from the eye-lashes the head is absolutely devoid of hair. The scalp is quite 
smooth and hairless and there is no sign of any moustache or chin-beard; but short, 
moderately abundant, white hairs are visible on the left masseteric region. 

The skin of the face still retains obvious traces of having been much wrinkled during 

The cranium is small, narrow, and ovoid in norma verticalis. In profile (pi. XXII) it 
appears to be very lofty and the occiput is moderately prominent. The narrow, 
relatively long ellipsoid face is said, by M. Maspero, to present « refined features?), 

4 . 



and «the mouth still bears an expression of shrewdness and cunnings (Op. cit., 
Struggle of the Nations, p. 2 4 a).! But the narrow, feeble jaw, with receding chin 
(pi. XXI and XXII) give an aspect of weakness to the whole face. 

M. Maspero states that « the king was already advanced in age at the time of his death , 
being over fifty years old, to judge by his teeth, which are worn». (Op. cit. , 
p. a 4 a). 

The cranium is 0 m. 180 mill, long, 0 m. i 33 mill, broad : its minimal frontal 
diameter is 0 m. 093 mill, and its circumference o -m. 5 io mill. : total facial 
height, 0 m. 1 ih mill.; upper facial height 0 m. 070 mill.; bizygomatic breadth , 

0 m. 127 mill.; bigonial breadth, 0 m. 098 mill.; nasal height, 0 m. 087 mill, 
and breadth 0 m. o 33 mill, (alar measurement, which however is of little value, 
as the nostrils are widely dilated — see pi. XXI); left orbit, o m. o 4 cent, by 0 m. 
o 3 cent. : right orbit, precisely same dimensions. The auricular height of the cra- 
nium is 0 m. n3 mill.; and the chin- vertex projection, 0 m. 195 mill. 

Height of upper border of symphysis pubis (from level of heels) o m. 83 o mill. : 
upper border of sternum 0 m. 4 2 7 mill, above symphysis pubis; biacromial 
. 3 1 o mill. , and breadth across heads of humeri , 0 m. 3 4 o mill. 

61066. The mummy of Thoutmosis II (pis. XXIII and XXIV). 

This mummy was unwrapped by M. Maspero ( Les Monties royales, p. 546 ) on July 1“, 

The mummy was badly damaged by ancient tomb-robbers. [The photograph (pi. XXIII) 
represents it as restored by me on September 22“*, 1906]. The left arm was broken 
off at the shoulder-joint, and the forearm separated at the elbow joint. The right 
arm was chopped off just above the elbow. From the manner of folding of the skin 

1 was able to determine the positions of the two arms and restore them , as they are 
shown in pi. XXIII. Both upper arms were vertical. From the folding of the skin in 
the bend of the right elbow, it was evident that the forearm passed obliquely across 
the chest, so as to bring the fully extended right hand in front of the left shoulder. 
The left forearm was probably lying in contact with the chest, i. e. deeper than the 
right forearm; but the hand was not quite so high as the right; and only the thumb 
was extended, the fingers being fully flexed. 

The whole anterior abdominal wall and a considerable part of the thoracic wall had 
been hacked away by means of blows from some large, sharp-edged implement 
(?axe). One stroke cut across the sternal end of the right clavicle had passed obliquely 
outward through the upper four ribs on the right side : another gash passed straight 
through the middle line of the anterior body-wall : a third cut through the left ribs , 
from the second to the eighth inclusive , along a line passing downward and slightly 
outward from a point on the second rib four centimetres from the middle line. 

The right leg was completely severed from the body by a blow (probably of an axe) 
which cut through the right pubic bone toward the great sciatic notch. 

A slight gash is found passing obliquely upward and outward on the neck from the 



left sterno-clavicular articulation {pi. XXIV, fig. a); and there is another wound, 
much deeper than the last-mentioned, farther round on the left side of the neck. 

Two small cuts are visible on the chin (fig. a). 

The posterior (lateral) margin only is left of the embalming- wountif^ which must have 
been a widely-gaping fusiform opening, 1 1 cent, in length. 

The skin of the thorax, shoulders and arms (excluding the hands), the whole of the 
back, the buttocks and legs (excluding the feet) is studded with raised macules 
varying in size from minute points to patches a centimetre in diameter. The skin of 
the head is not affected. A condition precisely similar to this is also found in the 
mummy of Amenothes II and in a less marked form in Thoutmosis III ; and the 
question is raised as to whether these macules are due to some cutaneous eruption 
or are the result of the action of the preservative bath post mortem. On the whole I 
am inclined to look upon them as the manifestations of some disease, the nature of 
which, however, is not altogether clear : but the fact that this irregularity of the 
skin occurs in three successive Pharaohs suggests that it may be due to some irritant 
amongst the ingredients of the preservative materials employed by the embalmers 
at this particular time. 

M. Maspero makes the following statements concerning Thoutmosis II [The Struggle of 
the Nations, pp. ad 2 , 2 k 3 ). «The mask on his coffin represents him with a smiling 
and amiable countenance, and with the fine pathetic eyes which show his descent 
from the Pharaohs of the XII th dynasty. His statues bear the same expression, which 
indeed is that of the mummy itself. He resembles Thoutmosis I; but his features 
are not so marked, and are characterised by greater gentleness. He had scarcely 
reached the age of thirty when he fell a victim to a disease of which the process of 
embalming could not remove the traces. The skin is scabrous in patches and covered 
with scars, while the upper part of the [scalp] is bald; the body is thin and some- 
what shrunken, and appears to have lacked vigour and muscular powers (see 
Monies royales, pp. 545 - 54 y). 

M. Maspero’s estimate of age is based upon the condition of the upper incisor teeth 
(see pi. XXIV), which were exposed by removing some linen and resin from the 
slightly open mouth. But as these teeth project beyond the lower incisors, as in so 
many members of the Royal Family in the XVHI th dynasty [vide supra), the absence 
of signs of « wears in the upper teeth does not necessarily bear the significance thus 
attached to it. The late Professor Rudolf Virchow makes the following statements in 
reference to these matters. «Thutmes II., der Urenkel von Ahmosis, ist nach einer 
sehr kurzen Regierung gestorben, also wahrscheinlich noch in jungerem Alter. 
Seine vollen Schneidezahne sind freilich stark abgeschliffen , aber sonst von guter 
Bescbaffenbeit. Sie sind orthognath, wenngleich etwas vortretend » [Die dgyptischen 
Konigsmumien im Museum, zu Bulaq, Sitzungsberichte der koniglich preussischen 
Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1888, XXXIV, p. 771). , 

On the temples there is dark brown wavy hair about 1 2 cent, long arranged in curls 
(see pi. XXIV), which Professor Virchow regards as heing the result, possibly, of 
artifice. On the vertex there is a very scanty covering of much finer hair, not more 



than 2 cent. long. The whole occipital region and a patch on the right parietal 
region are wholly devoid of hair; but there is the possibility that this may have 
fallen off during or after mummification. 

Although loss of hair often occurs at a much earlier age than 3 o years, especially as 
a result of certain diseases , the baldness of Thoulmosis II , considered in conjunction 
with the wrinkled skin of his face, leads me seriously to question the suggestion 
that he was no more than 3 o years of age. 

Only a few scattered hairs in the masseteric region are all that can be detected of the 

Each external auditory meatus is occupied by a round plug of resin (pi. XXIV). The 
ears are small and well-formed and the lobules seem not to be perforated. 

The bridge of the nose is low and fairly broad. Both nostrils are distended with plugs 
of linen impregnated with resinous material : but it is clear that the nose must 
have been moderately broad, without being squat (see pi. XXIV). Virchow describes 
the nose as being «an der Wurzel breit, der Riicken stark vortretend, der Index 
( 63 . 6 ) genau derselbe wie bei Ahmosis, etwas gross n [Op. cil., p. 771). 

This mummy has been measured by Dr. Fouquet (M. Maspero’s Report, Les Monties 
royales), by Professor Virchow [Op. cit.) and by Dr. Douglas Derry and me. But 
there are surprisingly great discrepancies in the three series of measurements. In 
some cases, as for instance, stature, which, according to Virchow is 1 m. 760 mill., 
but according to our own measurements only 1 m. 684 mill., the difference is due 
to the fact that we were able to measure the height after the removal of the wrap- 
pings from the feet. But other equally disconcerting contrasts appear in measu- 
rements that were made under precisely similar conditions. 

The cranium is of a broad pentagonoid form. Virchow’s account of the head is as 
follows : — ttder Ropf trotz der Lange des Hinterhaupts mesocephal (Index 79.1) 
und wahrscheinlich orthocephal (Ohrhohenindex 62.8). Die Stirn voll, mit schwa- 
chen Orbital wiilsten , etwas ruckwarts geneigt. Das Gesicht obwohl schmal, doch 
chamaeprosop (Index 88.8)» [Op. cil., p. 771). 

The features of this, and all the other early XVIII th dynasty mummies so far con- 
sidered, are characteristically Egyptian. It is unusual, however in pure Egyptians 
to find such broad crania as we see in all these royal mummies, with the note- 
worthy exception of the small-headed individual supposed to be Thoutmosis I. 
Nevertheless it should not be surprising if the members of a family, who, by their 
own initiative , had just freed their country from foreign domination , displayed a 
somewhat greater breadth of cranium than the generality of their subjects. 

The length of the head is 0 m. 191 mill, and the breadth is 0 m. i 4 g mill. : minimal 
frontal breadth, 0 m. 100 mill, : circumference, 0 m. 549 mill.; total facial 
height, 0 m. 122 mill. : upper facial height, o m. 070 mill. : nasal height and 
breadth, 0 m. 067 and o m. o 33 mill, respectively. 

Virchow [Op. cit., p. 786) gives the following measurements of this mummy. [I use 
the terms employed elsewhere in this catalogue]. Length of head, 0 m. 191 mill.; 
breadth of head, o m. i 5 i mill.; auricular height, 0 m. 120 mill.; distance of 



auditory meatus from root of nose, o m. n 5 mill.; circumference of head , o m. 
5^7 mill.; minimal frontal breadth, 0 m. 100 mill.; length of face, from hair- 
margin to chin, 0 m. 191 mill.; total facial height, 0 m. 120 mill.; upper facial 
height (measured to the lip and not to the alveolar margin), 0 m. 078 mill.; bizy- 
gomatic breadth, 0 m. 1 3 5 mill.; bimalar hreadth, 0 m. 097 mill. ; bigonial 
breadth, o m. 098 mill. : (internal) interorbital width, o m. o 32 mill.; external 
orbital width, o m. o 85 mill. : nasal height, o m. o 55 mill.; nasal breadth, 0 m. 
o 35 mill.; length of mouth, 0 m. o 55 mill.; and length of ear, o m, o 55 mill. 

I found the height of the upper margin of the symphysis pubis above the heels to be 
0 m. 873 milL 

In his report M. Maspero states that the prepuce was present (in 1886); but I was 
unable to find (September aa" a 1906) any definite remains of the external genital 
organs, although appearances suggest that they had been flattened against the 
perineum as in the case of the mummy last described. 

There is a funnel-shaped dilatation of the rectum, 0 m. o 55 mill, deep, the aperture 
measuring 0 m. oh cent, by 0 m. o 3 cent. Remains of the pelvic viscera are still 

Unlike the conditions found in many of the royal mummies the finger-nails and toe- 
nails of Thoutmosis II were all neatly trimmed and cleaned. 

61067. The mummy of an unknown man «C», found in the coffin of the Scribe 
Nibsoni (pi. XXV, XXVI and XXVII). 

When found in 1881 this mummy had obviously been recently plundered by some of 
the people of the Luxsor neighbourhood , whose depredations led to the discovery 
of the Royal Mummies (see Les Monties royales, pp. 57 A- 576). 

In the course of his discussion of this mummy ( Op. cit. ) M. Maspero makes the sta- 
tements : « J’ai suppose jusqu’a present que le cadavre repr&ente r 4 ellement 
Nibsoni. Comme Nibsoni 4 tait le p£re d’Honttoui, femme du roi Pinot’mou, il est 
possible que sa parent^ avec la reine lui ait valu Thonneur d’etre placA dans la 
cachette n . In The Struggle of the Nations the definite statement is made that this 
mummy is «the scribe Nibsoni » (p. 5 og, footnote 3 ). 

But Nibsoni lived in the times of the XXP‘ dynasty, whereas this is an XVIII th dynasty 
mummy, obviously belonging to the group that includes the first three Pharaohs 
who bore the name Thoutmosis. The mode of embalming, the treatment of the skin, 
the nature of the resin -impregnated bandages, and even such small details as the 
rounded appearance of the external auditory meatus (compare pi. XXVII with 
pis. XXII, XXIV and XXVIII and note the contrast between these four and all the 
other plates), and the treatment of the genital organs, all proclaim this mummy to 
be early XVIII th dynasty in date. 

The positions of the arms indicate that this mummy is earlier than that of Thout- 
mosis II. I have placed it after the latter in this catalogue merely for the sake of 
convenience in discussion. 



Who this unknown man can be there is no evidence to show ; for if the enshrouded 
body in the coffin of Amenothes I is really the mummy of that sovereign, there is 
no king missing from the early XVIII th dynasty series. 

Moreover the features of this man present no likeness to any of his possible contempo- 
raries among the royal family; and a tall, vigorous man, 1 m. 789 mill, in height, 
must have seemed a very giant amongst them, and is hardly likely to have sprung 
from such a puny stock. The only possibility that remains is that « C » was some 
high official. 

He has abundant, black hair, freely streaked with grey. It is about i 5 cent. long. 
The teeth are so much worn that they have all become molariform. There can be 
no doubt thas this man was well advanced in years. 

Without removing the bandages to a greater extent than is shown in pi. XXV I was 
unable to discover any trace of genital organs; and I would not have hesitated to 
call this man a eunuch, if it had not been for the fact that the mode of treatment 
of the genitalia is almost equally puzzling in the mummies of the three other members 
of this group (Thoutmosis I, II and III), who were certainly not eunuchs, if we 
accept the history of their reigns. 

The skin of the body is of a reddish brown colour, but that of the face is almost black. 
This man had a strong face with pronounced features; a big, heavy, broad jaw of 
Armenoid type; prominent brow ridges and sloping forehead; broad cheeks, and a 
fairly prominent nose. On the whole his features conform , not to the the indigenous 
Egyptian type, but to that of the alien, so-called Armenoid group. 

There are small perforations in the lobules of the ears. 

The cranial length is o m. 192 mill.; cranial breadth, o m. 187 mill.; minimal 
frontal breadth, 0 m. io 5 mill.; chin-vertex projection, o m. 217 mill.; total 
facial height, 0 m. 12 5 mill.; upper facial height, 0 m. 069 mill.; bizygomatic 
breadth, 0 m. 1 4 1 mill.; bigonial breadth, 0 m. io 5 mill.; biauricular breadth, 
0 m. 112 mill.; nasal height, 0 m. o 58 mill., and breadth (alar), 0 m. o 34 mill. 

61068. The Mummy of Thoutmosis III (pi. XXVIII). 


This mummy was unwrapped by M. Emil Brugsch (now Brugsch Pacha) in July 1 88 1 
and rebandaged. In 1886 it was reopened (Les Monties royales, pp. 5/17 and 548 ) 
and the body was then said to have been coated with « a layer of whitish natron 
charged with human fat, greasy to the touch, foetid and strongly caustic* (see 
Mathey in Bulletin de 1 ’Institut < 5 gyptien , 1886, p. 186). The investigations of 
Professor W. A. Schmidt (fiber Mumienfetlsauren, Chemiker-Zeitung, 1908, n° 65 ) 
and my own experience of what has happened in the case of other mummies suggest 
that the whitish material in question was an efflorescence of fatty acids. « Towards 
the close of the XX th Dynasty*, according to M. Maspero ( The Struggle of the Nations, 
p. 989), the mummy of Thoutmosis III s was torn out of the coffin by robbers, who 
stripped it and rifled it of the jewels with which it was covered, injuring it in 
their haste to carry away the spoil. It was subsequently re-interred , * * ; but before 



reburial some renewal of the wrappings was necessary , and as portions of the body 
had become loose, the restorers , in order to give the mummy the necessary firmness , 
compressed it between four oar-shaped slips of wood, painted white (see Les Momies 
royales, pi. VI, A.), and placed three inside the wrappings and one outside, under 
the bands which confined the winding sheet. Happily the face, which had been 
plastered over with pitch [resin] at the time of embalming, did not suffer at all 
from this rough treatment, and appeared intact when the protecting mask was 
removed ». 

In his Procis-verbal de I’ouverture des Momies de Ramsh II el Ramsh III (Bull. 1’Inst. 
dgypt. , 1886 , p. 26 /i), M. Maspero gives us further information concerning this 
mummy : «Les gens qui les ont depouill(5s respectaient si peu la majesld royale, 
qu’ils ont arrach4 le lobe de 1 ’oreille avec la boucle ; ou detach 4 a coups de hache ou 
de couteau les bracelets qui adh^raient trop 4troitement a la peau. La momie de 
Thoutmosis III avait 4t4 cass4e en trois morceaux». 

The head is broken off the body and all four limbs have been detached, the feet broken 
off, and each arm has been broken at the elbow into two fragments. By restoring 
the pieces to their original situations it was seen that the left forearm had been bent 
upward across the chest and the sharply flexed hand (thumb extended) was near the 
right shoulder. The right forearm was placed in front of the left and the fully 
extended hand was in front of the left shoulder. The precise identity of the arran- 
gement of the hands and forearms in the cases of Thoutmosis II and Thoutmosis III 
shows that such posing must have some definite significance. 

The right hand and forearm were tied to a piece of wood by means of a great 
mass of very fine linen (probably XXI** Dynasty). Probably the wrist was broken 
by the plunderers. The left hand is flexed in a position which suggests that it 
may have been grasping a cylindrical object 2 3 millimetres in diameter , such as 
the ceremonial whip, which the king is often represented as carrying in his left 

With Thoutmosis III the embalmers began a new custom in the selection of the site 
for the embalming-wound. Instead of a vertical incision extending upward from 
near the anterior superior .spine of the ilium towards the ribs, as we have seen in 
all the mummies so far considered, an oblique cut was made (in the mummies 
of Thoutmosis III, Amenothes II and his family, Thoutmosis IV, Yuaa and 
Thuaa, and Amenothes III) from near the anterior superior spine obliquely 
downward and inward towards the pubes , following a course parallel to Pouparl’s 
ligament (see Diagram 3, p. 34). 

In the XIX th and XX th Dynasties they kept to the same convention , although the wound 
was often enlarged upward so as to occupy part of the area which it involved before 
the time of Thoutmosis III (see Plates XLII and LV); but in the XXI * 1 Dynasty a 
reaction occurred in respect of this, as also in so many other matters, and the 
embalmers returned to the infracostal region as the site of election for the em- 
balming wound, as their early XVIII th Dynasty forerunners were in the habit of 

Catal. du Muiee n° 6io5i. 








In the case of Thoulmosis III the embalming wound extends obliquely across tbe abdo- 
men roughly parallel to the left Ponpart’s ligament. Its anterior extremity is o m. 

o 65 mill, from the symphysis pubis 
and its lateral extremity o m. o 56 mill, 
vertically above the anterior superior 
spine of the left ilium. The incision is 1 1 
centimetres long and it gapes to the 
extent of only one centimetre. Through 
it the cavity of the abdomen can be seen 
to be packed with a quantity of cloth 
impregnated with resinous material. 

As in the case of several mummies of this 
particular period the pudenda seem to 
Diagram 3. Rave been completely removed. '* 

The skin of the whole mummy is blackened. Around the lower part of the abdomen 
and perineum and also around the shoulders it is studded with small projections, 
analogous to those seen in the cases of Thoulmosis II and Amenolhes II. 

The mummy ofThoutmosis III is 1 m. 6 1 5 mill, in height. 

The cranium is of large capacity and of pentagonoid form. According to my measurements 
it is o m. 196 mill. long, and o m. i 5 o mill, broad; but Virchow gives 0 m. ig 3 
mill, and o m. i 5 i mill, as the dimensions, and gives the auricular height as 
0 m. 108 mill, to my 0 m. 106 mill. I quote his remarks concerning this mummy. 
«Thutmes III, der jungere Bruder des vorigen Thoutmosis II]. Obwohl derselbe 
erst Jiach einen langen Regicrung sein Leben beschloss, so macht seine Mummie 
doch einen fast jugendlichen Eindruck. Auch sein Schadel ist mesocephal (Index 
78.2) und mehr, als der seines Bruders, flach (Ohrhohenindex 5 5.9). Alles an ihm 
hat ein mehr zartes Aussehen : die Ohren klein, die Lippen niedrig, die oberen 
zahne tibergreifend , die unteren sehr hoch hinauftretend. Kinn gerundet und etwas 
zurucktretend , von sanflem Aussehen. Das Gesicht hoch und schmal, leptoprosop 
(Index 93.1), die Nase ungleich schmaler als die von Bruder und Urgrossvater 
(Index 6o.o)», op. cit., p. 772. 

The face is small, narrow and elliptical. The marked projection of the upper incisor 
teeth, which we have noted as a constant feature in this dynasty from the time of 
Ahm6sis I and his consort onwards, is associated in this mummy with a raising of 
the unworn edges of the lower incisors, only the anterior surfaces of which show 
any signs of wear. 

Both nares are stuffed with a black resinous mass. 

The nose, now badly damaged, was narrow, high-bridged and prominent, but not 

If one restores the facial features of this damaged mummy a contour strikingly like the 
Delr-el-Baharl portrait and the beautiful statue (n° Aao 53 ) described by M. Legrain 
(Statues et Statuettes, Cat. Gdn. , 1906, Plate XXX) will be obtained. The mouth is 
slightly opened and the lower lip is drawn outwards. The forehead is very low. The 



small gracefully moulded ears have preserved their form. It is not possible to say u 
for certain whether the lobule is pierced ; but in spite 
of the appearance of Fig. 1 (Plate XXVIII) I have 
been unable to convince myself that any real perfo- 
ration is present (Diagram 4). 

No trace of hair or beard can be found anywhere on the 
head, excepting the eyebrows and a few very short 
white hairs just behind the left ear. Thoutmosis III 
was certainly almost completely bald. 

The plunderers , who did so much damage to this body 
in their search for jewellry , did not complete their 
work, for the remains of two strings of beads were 
found on the front of each shoulder , not in direct 
contact with the skin, but upon the inner most layers 
of bandages. One string was composed of small cylin- 
ders about one and a half millimetres in diameter with square margins : the other 
of beads half the size and with rounded margins. The heads consisted of carnelian , 

gold and lapis lazuli, in that order, in some 

places : in others of carnelian, gold 

and green felspar. 







Elliot Smith 

Cranial circumference. . . . 

o m. 55o mill. 

0 m. 553 mill. 

Total facial height 





0 ia5 

Upper n n 

o 086 

0 080 

(measured to lip) 

(measured to maxilla) 

lasal height 

o o55 

0 060 

» breadth 

o o33 

0 039 

(The broken condition of the nose explains these discrepancies in the estimates — see Plate XXVIII.) 

Bizygomatic breadth 

o i3a 

0 i3o 

Bigonial breadth 









Minimal frontal breadth . . . 

o 091 





Chin to vertex (projection). 






Chin to hah' margin 

0 1 83 


Right Orbit 

0 m. 0 44 mill, x 0 m o33 mill. 

Left Orbit 

0 m. o4a mill, x 0 m. o36 mill. 

The left auditory pinna measures o m. o53 mill, x o m. o3o mill., and the right 
o m. o54 mill, x o m. o3o mill. Virchow simply gives the length measurement 
as o m. o53 mill. 

Oblique length of left humerus o m. 34o mill. 

Estimated length of left radius o a55 

Maximum length of hand (including carpus) o iq3 

5 . 



Upon the lateral aspects of the cranium there are large triangular depressions due to 
atrophy of the outer surfaces of the parietal bones. Such depressions are of common 
occurrence in crania of the ancient Egyptian aristocracy. I have suggested by way 
of explanation that the constant wearing of heavy wigs or other headgear may be 
^ the cause ( The Causation of the Symmetrical Thinning of the Parietal Bones in Ancient 
Egyptians, Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, volume XLI, 1907). 

61069. The Mummy of Amenothes II (in his tomb at Biban el Molouk). 

The tomb of Amenothes II was opened by M. Loret in 1 8 9 8 ( Les tombeaux tie Thothmes 
III el iAminophis II, dans le Bulletin de I’lnstilut igyptien, 3 * s 4 rie, n° 9 (ann 4 e 
1898), p. 91-1 1 2 , pi. I-XIV) and the mummies of that Pharaoh and four others 
were left in the tomb, while those of Thoutmosis IV, Amenothes III, Siphtah, 
Seti II, Ramses IV; Ramses V, Ramses VI and an unknown woman lodged in the 
lid of the coffin of Setnakhiti (and, until unwrapped, supposed to be that Pharaoh) 
were removed to the Cairo Museum in 1902 by M. Maspero. 

In the year 1902, M. Maspero removed some of the wrappings from the mummy of 
Amenothes II and described the condition of the mummy at that time in a report 
appended to Mr. Howard Carter’s account of the robbery that took place in Amen- 
othes IPs tomb in that year. ( Procis-verbal d’examen du corps du Pharaon Aminoihk II, 
dans les Annales du Service des Antiquitds de I'tigypte, t. Ill, 1902, p. 120-121, 
pi. let II). 

With M. Maspero’s permission, in 1907 I made a hasty examination of four of the 
five mummies left in the tomb. Mr. A. E. Weigall, the Chief Inspector of Antiquities 
for Upper Egypt, was present and helped me in the task; but as I was able to 
spend only one day in the Biban el Molouk, I devoted the whole of my attention to 
the four complete mummies, and did not look at the damaged remains of the 
r Momie dans une barque » of M. Loret’s account. 

The general appearance of the mummy of Amenothes II is already well known from 
the excellent photographs made under Mr. Howard Carter s supervision to illustrate 
M. Maspero’s procis-verbal , already quoted. The body is that of a man 1 m. 673 
mill, in height. So that Amenothes II was taller' than his father, Thoutmosis III 
(1 m. 61 5 mill.) and his son Thoutmosis IV (1 m. 646 mill.). He has wavy, brown 
hair (when straightened 0 m. 17 cent, long.) like that of his son and successor 
Thoutmosis IV ; but, unlike the latter’s, it is abundantly interspersed with white hair; 
and there is a large patch of baldness over the upper occipital and parietal regions. 
These facts, together with the evidence of the well-worn teeth, indicate that 
Amenothes II was a much older man than Thoutmosis IV. There are however, no 
data to enable us to estimate with any precision the age Amenothes II had reached ; 
but from his general appearance he was probably somewhere between forty and 
fifty years old at the lime of his death. 

There is a most striking resemblance in face and cranial form between Amenothes II 
and Thoutmosis IV, in spite of the fact that the general appearance of strength and 



decision of character in the face of the former are in marked contrast to the effemi- 
nate weakness of the latter. The shape of the head, with its curious sloping forehead 
and slender but prominent nose , is identical in these two pharaohs. 

On various parts of the body, and especially the legs, there are gashes produced by the 
axes of plunderers when chopping through the wrappings. 

The well-worn teeth are in a good state of preservation. In this respect they present 
a marked contrast to those of his grandson , Ameno- 
thes III, which are badly affected with dental caries, 
to alveolar abscesses, which had riddled the 


Like all other known adult Egyptian men Amenothes II 
was circumcised. 

His arms were in the position customary in the mummies 
of kings of the XVIII th (after Thoutmosis I**) XIX th 
and XX th dynasties , i. e. the upper arms were placed 
vertically at the sides and the forearms were crossed 
over the chest, but in a much lower situation than 

Diagram 5. 


The right forearm is placed in front of the left and is almost horizontal : the right 
hand is tightly clenched, with the thumb extended : unlike most of the royal 
mummies of this period Amenothes II had no staff in his right hand and in his left 

there was no room for anything of a larger dia- 
meter than a common lead-pencil; and there is 
no sign of even this space having been occupied 
by any object. The fingers of the left hand were 
not clenched so tightly as those of the right 

The skin over the whole body is thickly studded 
with small projections or tubercles varying from 
o m. 00 2 mill, to o m. 008 mill, in diameter. 
At present I am unable to determine whether 
they are the results of some disease or merely 
the effects of the embalmer’s salt-bath , hut they 
are certainly unusual. 

In Mr. Howard Carter’s photographs 
[op. cit. supra ) several pieces of 
Diagram 6. resin -soaked linen will be seen 

adhering to the nose and nfouth and hiding the features of the face. As 
these fragments served no useful purpose and interfered with a view Diagram 7. 
of Amenothes’ countenance I removed them on October 19 th , 1907. 

In the resin covering the fifth dorsal spine there is the distinct impression of a series 
of beads arranged in the pattern of the well-known pectoral ornament (Dia- 
gram 7). 



On the back of the sacrum there was a geometrical pattern ( Diagram 8 ) impressed 
on the resin. There is no trace whatsoever of the objects which 
produced these imprints on the surface. 

The pudenda were pushed in against the perineum and [embedded 
in a great mass of resinous paste, which was spread over the whole 
perineal region. 

Diagram 8 . The following figures will give some idea of the proportions of the head. 

Maximum length of head 191 mill. 

Maximum breadth of head (with hair) 1 hU 

Minimum frontal breadth 90 

Auricular height lot 

Circumference . . . * 538 

Bizygomatic breadth t 34 

Total facial height is 4 

Upper facial height 70 

Nasal height 58 

Nasal breadth 3 1 

Space between inner canthi 3 i 

Left orbit 47 x 3 g .5 

Right orbit 47 x 4 1 

Bigonial breadth 100 

During my visit to Biban el Molouk there was not time to obtain photographs of 
Amenothes II, but Mr Weigall and I made rough sketches; and from these and 
Mr Howard Carters photographs (Annales, op. cit. supra, PI. 1 1 ) I have drawn 
Diagrams 5, 6 , 7 and 8 . The nose of the mummy in now flattened. In the diagram 
I have indicated by dotted lines its probable contour before flattening. 

61070. The Elder Woman in the Tomb of Amenothes II (pi. XGVII). 

The general appearance of the three mummies found in room III by M. Loret has been 
very accurately and realistically shown in the excellent drawing by M. Fdlix Guilmant 
[Les iombeaux de Tholhmk III et d’Amdnophis II, dans le Bulletin de I’Institut igyptien, 
3' s&ie, n° 9 ann4e 1898 pi. XI). The heads of these three mummies are represented 
in the photographs, (pi. XII, XIII and XIV) in the same work. 

The first mummy (M. Loret’s memoir, op. cit., p. io3; also pi. XII) is a small (t m. 
455 mill.) middle-aged woman with long(o m. 3o cent.), brown, wavy, lustrous 
hair , parted in the centre and falling down on both sides of the head on to the 
shoulders. Its ends are converted into numerous apparently natural curls. Her teeth 
are well-worn but otherwise healthy. The sternum is completely ankylosed. She has 
no grey hair. 

She has small pointed features. 

The right arm is placed vertically-extended at the side and the palm of the hand is 
placed flat upon the right thigh. The left hand was tightly clenched, but with the 



thumb fully extended : it is placed in front of the manubrium sterni, the forearm 
being sharply flexed upon the brachium. 

On the under surface of the left heel there is an elliptical ulcer (o m. 022 mill. X 0 m. 
012 mill.) with indurated edges, and on the inner surface of the same heel a much 
larger ulcer (0 m. 0 kk mill, in diameter) of the same nature. These wounds have 
all the appearance of ante-mortem injuries with inflammatory reaction around the 
edges. It is possible, however, that if they were done immediately after death the 
action of the salt bath on the cut edges may have given rise to the appearance 
presented by these ulcers. In some other mummies of women I 
have found the skin cut away from the heel. If these ulcers were 
not ante-mortem they were certainly done before the embalming- 
process was completed, because the linen is packed into them and 
is adherent to the bone. 

The whole of the front of the abdomen and part of the thorax is 
broken away, as the result of the plunderers work. 

As in the mummy of Amenothes II the perineum was thickly plast- 
ered with resin in the form of a large cake. 

The rima pudendi is widely open and is stuffed with linen from 
the inside (from the pelvis). The resinous paste was applied to the 
surface of this linen plug and to the skin-areas surrounding it. 

The cranial length is 0 m. 177 mill.; cranial breadth, 0 m. 1 3 5 
mill.; minimal frontal breadth, 0 m. 091 mill.; auricular height , 
o m. 1 14 mill.; total facial height, 0 m. 107 mill.; upper facial 
height, 0 m. 062 mill.; bizygomatic breadth, o m. 121 mill.; 
bigonial breadth , 0 m. 087 mill.; nasal height and breadth (alar) , 0 m. o 5 o mill, 
by 0 m. 027 mill., right orbit, o m. 0A2 x 0 m. o 3 i and left orbit, 0 m. 
o 3 g x 0 m. o 3 1. 

61071. The Mummy of the Boy in the Tomb of Amenothes II, probably the 
Royal Prince Ouabkhousenou (pi. XCVIIl). 

The second mummy, described by M. Loret {op. cit., p. io 3 ) as ctcelui dun enfant 
d’une quinzaine d’ann^es n is a small boy (1 m. 2A2 mill.) whose general appear- 
ance is suggestive of an age of about nine or ten years : but as permanent canine 
teeth are present and fully grown he cannot be less than eleven years of age (see 
Loret, pi. XII). 

Although M. Loret distinctly refers to this mummy as that of a prince certain writers 
have called it the body of a girl. The hair has been shaved from the greater part 
of this boy’s scalp : but on the right side of his head (corresponding roughly to the 
extent of the right parietal bone) the hair has not been cut and forms a great, long, 
wavy, lustrous mass (0 m. 275 mill, long), which from the nature of its waviness 
was probably plaited at some time (see Loret’s pi. XIII). 



It is particularly interesting to note that this boy of eleven years of age, who still 
wears the Horus-lock of hair, is not circumcised. His ears are pierced. 

Both hands are placed in front of the pudenda (see Loret’s pi. XI) : the left hand is 
flexed, but the thumb is extended; and the right hand is fully extended, with the 
exception of the small finger, which is flexed. 

The chief damage done by the plunderers consists of a large gash in the left side of 
the neck and thorax , smashing away the greater part of the left clavicle , the gla- 
diolus and half of the manubrium sterni. There is also a large oval hole (o m. 
07 cent, x o m. 01 cent.) in the right side of the frontal bone. 

When the embalmers were opening the cranial cavity by means of an instrument 
passed up through the nose the aperture was made not through the ethmoid but 
through the sphenoid into the sella turcica. The mass of brain and resin in the cra- 
nial cavity forms a perfect mould of the occipital fossae and the groove for the 
superior longitudinal sinus turning into the right lateral sinus. 

The head of this boy is beloid, its length 0 m. 18a mill. , its breadth 0 m. 1/17 mill, 
and its minimum frontal diameter 0 m. 091 mill. 

The material obtained from the cranial cavity of this mummy has been analysed by 
Mr. A. Lucas ( Preservative Materials used by the Ancient Egyptians in Embalming, 
Survey Department Paper, n° 1a, 191 1, p. i 3 ). 

This boy presents an extraordinary likeness to a beautiful statue of the god Khonsou , 
discovered at Karnak, which has been described by M. Maspero in the Annales du 
Service, t. Ill, p. 181. Not only does the god wear a Horus-lock like that of this 
prince, but the statue is characterised also by his exceptional brachycephalism. 

In view of the evidence for the relationship of this boy to Amenothes II ( vide infra), it 
is of interest to note that there were found in the tomb « statuettes en bois du roi 
et de plusieurs divinitfe, Rdpondanls au nom d’Am&ioth&s II et d’un prince royal 
Ouabkhousenou» (Guide du Visiteur). 

61072. The Mummy of the Younger Woman in the Tomb of Amenothes II 
(pi. XCIX). 

The examination of this mummy yielded the most surprising results , because M. Loret 
had described it as a man’s body, whereas it requires no great knowledge of ana- 
tomy to decide that the excellently preserved naked body (Loret’s pi. XI and XIV) 
is a young woman’s. Every later writer has followed Loret in his description of this 
mummy as a man. The only reason I can assign for such a curious and obvious 
mistake is the absence of hair on the head. All the hair had been clipped very short 
or shaved. 

The mummy is a young woman (1 m. 58 o mill, in height), less than a 5 years of 
age. As it is not possible to examine the epiphyses without damaging the mummy, 
the exact age cannot be determined. [In the remote BiMn el Molouk , it is hardly 
feasible to examine the body with the x-rays.] Judging from the condition of the 
iliac bones and the fact that the third molar teeth are not erupted, the above 



estimate has been made. The embalming wound is a large gaping oval opening 
(o m. 1 45 mill, x o m. o 56 mill.) placed alongside Poupart’s ligament in the same 
situation as those of Amenothes II, Thoutmosis IV and Amenothes III. As in these 
mummies the abdomen was stuffed with balls of linen soaked in a solution of resin. 
As in the other mummies left in this tomb a large mass of resin was spread over the 
whole perineum. Both in this mummy and in the other woman (n° 61070) the 
rima pudendi was widely open and plugged from the inside with linen , on the 
surface of which the perineal mass of resin was smeared. 

In this mummy (as also in another mummy said to be contemporaneous with 
Amenothes II , which Mr. Weigall permitted me to examine) the diaphragm had 
not been removed : but a small aperture had been made in it opposite each side of 
the thorax for the purpose of removing the lungs, the heart and the mediastina 
being left intact. Only the abdominal cavity was packed with linen (soaked in resi- 
nous solution), but great buttons of linen projected upwards into the thorax through 
the apertures in the diaphragm. 

Two small perforations are found in the lobule of the left ear. The right ear is broken. 

The tomb-robbers smashed the anterior wall of the chest, leaving a large gaping 
wound in which the upper surface of the diaphragm is seen. The heart and peri- 
cardium have shrunk into the form of a vertical septum in the chest cavity. The 
left side of the mouth and cheek, including the corresponding parts of the jaws, 
was also broken away. 

An oval opening (0 m. o 38 x 0 m. o 3 o) was made in the frontal bone just in front 
of the coronal suture. The right arm was torn off just below the 
shoulder. In my notes, hurriedly made during my short visit to the 
tomb of Amenothes II , I find no further reference to this arm : but 
these remarks occur, k hands in front of thighs a, and « along with 
these three mummies there is the well-preserved right forearm of a 
woman, which had been flexed at the elbow a, and «the hand was 
clasped n. 

The technique of embalming displayed in this mummy and the other 
two (n°* 61070 and 61071) associated with it is precisely similar 
to that of Amenothes II. There can be no doubt that these individuals 
were contemporaries of his; and as they were placed in his tomb, 
the obvious presumption is that they were royal personages and 
members of his family . 

The face of the elder woman (n° 61070) presents an undoubted like- 
ness to Nofritari; and the younger woman (n“ 61072) has the 

• ■ pi 11 J pi . , . , . Diagram 10. 

projection ot the alveolar process of the upper jaw, which is such 
a constant and distinctive trait of the royal family of the XVIII 0 * Dynasty. 

The features of the boy present a considerable likeness to the beautiful portrait-statue 
(n° /12073) of Amenothes II in his youth (see M. Legrain’s Statues el statuettes de 
Rois et de Particuliers , Catalogue g 4 n 4 ral, 1906, pi. XL 1 II). The natural assumption 
is that this prince is the son of Amenothes II. 

Catal. du Muie'e, n° 6 io 5 i. 




In the accompanying text-figure the proportions of the body are shown in a drawing 
made to scale : pubes to vertex, o m. 809 mill.; pubes to sole, o m. 778 mill.; 
thigh (from pubes to lower end of femur) being 0 m. 359 mill., and the rest of 
the leg, 0 m. 4 g 6 mill; bihumeral diameter, 0 m. 373 mill.; bicoracoid diameter, 
0 m. 975 mill.; transverse diameter of thorax, 0 m. 998 mill.; bi-iliac diameter, 
0 m. 979 mill.; bitrochanteric diameter, 0 m. 978 mill.; shoulder to elbow, o m. 
307 mill.; suprasternal notch to vertex, 0 m. 975 mill.; and chin to vertex, 
0 m. 900 mill. 

The cranium is beloid in form, 0 m. 176 mill, in length, and 0 m. i 4 i mill, in 
breadth, the minimal frontal breadth is o m. 094 mill.; auricular height, 0 m. 
1 1 9 mill.; circumference 0 m. 5 oo mill.; total facial height, 0 m. 1 1 9 mill. ; upper 
facial height, 0 m. 073; bizygomatic diameter, 0 m. 199 mill.; bigonial diameter, 
0 m. 097 mill.; and nasal height and breadth, om. o 56 mill, and o m. 095 mill. 

61073. The Mummy of Thoutmosis IV (pi. XXIX and XXX). 

M. Daressy’s proems- verbal of the unwrapping of this mummy, is published in the 
Annales du Service; 1 quote in his own words. 
sLe 96 mars 1903, a deux heures de Tapres-midi, dans une des salles du Mus^e des 
antiques egyptiennes au Gaire, par les soins de M. Maspero, directeur g< 5 n&ral des 
Musses ^gyptiens et du Service des Fouilles, de M. 6. Brugsch bey, conservateur du 
Mus£e et M. Daressy, conservateur adjoint, il a ete proc 4 d 4 a Touverture de la 
momie du roi Thoutmosis IV. 

«La momie avait £te extraite de son cercueil, peint en blanc et portant sur le devant 

i'inscriptionq,-^ ,j J [|i|] _ tf 

— - IN (SEED _ 1° 1' ,ifc0UV ' !r, P" 

M. Loret, en 1898, dans le tombeau d’Am^nothes II a Biban el Molouk, et apportd 
en 1900 au Musfe du Caire, ou il est inscrit sous le n° 34 5 5 9. 

« Le corps reposait sur une planche peinte en blanc des deux cotes , provenant dvidem- 
ment d’un grand coffre rectangulaire et dont les angles avaient 4 t£ coupes de maniere 
a pouvoir entrer dans la cuve. 

« La longueur de la momie enpnaillot 4 e 4 tait de 1 m. 7 1 cent. , elle dtait enticement 
recouverte d’un grand linceul en toile jaunie, pli^e en deux, nou£ sous les pieds. 
Sur la poitrine le cartouche-prtinom du Pharaon Cait trac 4 en grands signes hi 4 ra- 

tiques a Tencre bleue, qui se transcrivent ( © IWIIII> % • La partie superieure du 

linceul Cait maintenue par une large bandelette qui entourait le front et passait du 
cou au buste en croisant sur le haul de la poitrine. Le linceul ne faisait pas corps 
avec le maillot et £tait tendu de la poitrine aux pieds, laissant un vide au-dessus des 

« Ensuite on trouva un rtiseau de bandelettes , m 41 ang 4 de petites compresses de linge 
froiss 4 , repr 4 sentant quatre ou cinq 4 paisseurs, puis on rencontra un suaire 



enveloppant incompl&tement le corps , les bords en avant dtant dloign£s d’environ huit 
centimetres, mais reli6 par un cordon compose de petits morceaux de toile noues 
bout h bout, passant cinq fois d’une lisiere A I'autre a travers des trous pratiques 
- irr4guli&rement. Immediatement au-dessous une serviette teinte en rose couvrait le 
buste, un grand linge le reste du corps, puis recommengait une serie de bandelettes 
et de tampons d’etoffe; tout ce linge etait de grosseur moyenne, jauni, tache ou 
bride par le bitume. 

«La t4te etait maintenue par un fort lien de toile tordue, allant entourer le haul des 
bras. On ne rencontra ni couche de bitume, ni poudres absorbantes, ni aucun 

«Enfin le corps apparut, en bon etat sauf les pieds qui sont desarticules. Les bras sont 
croises sur la poitrine; les mains fermees tenaient probablement des embl&mes qui 
ont disparu. La peau a ete noircie par le bitume. II est evident que nous n’avions 
pas remmaillolement primitif, et que 1’appareil funeraire avait ete refait par les 
pr4tres charges de la surveillance des tombes royales longtemps apr&s 1’enseve- 
lissement et sans beaucoup de soins. La t£te est belle et expressive; les dents ne sont 
pas visibles, mais s’il fallait en juger par Taspect general, on serait tente de croire 
que le roi s^vait une trentaine d’ann4es. C*est 14 toutefois un criterium trop incertain 
pour qu’il faille s’y fier. La longueur de la momie est de 1 m. 68 cent. , ce chiffre est 
trop fort et il ne donne pas la taille reelle du Pharaon, les jambes ayant ete brisees, 
ainsi qu’il a ete dit plus haut. L’examen medical pourra seul donner une evaluation 
exacte. » 

The body is that of an extremely emaciated man, 1 m. 646 in height. It shows no sign 
of any ante-mortem injuries. 

Both feet have been broken off at some time, long after the body was embalmed; and 
the right leg was broken off at the knee joint. A transverse abrasion on the front of 
the neck may have been produced at the same time as these other injuries. For 
surposes of embalming the abdominal wall had been removed in the whole of the 
left iliac and part of the hypogastric regions, leaving a large triangular opening 
measuring o m. 5o cent, transversely, o m. 10 cent, in the vertical direction and 
o m. i4 cent, along the third margin, which was parallel to and just above 
Poupart’s ligament. The whole abdominal cavity was tightly packed with cloth satu- 
rated with resinous material, which formed a very hard solid mass. 

The body was lying in a fully-extended position. The shoulders were slightly raised : 
the upper arms were placed vertically, and the forearms were crossed on the front 
of the chest, the right arm being in front of the left. The hands were flexed in such 
a manner that they must (at the time of embalming) have been grasping vertical 
rods, each about o m. i5 mill, diameter. 

The skin is very dark and discoloured, so that it is not possible to form any accurate 
idea of its original colour. 

The head has a very effeminate appearance. The face is long, narrow and oval, the 
chin being narrow, prominent and somewhat pointed. The forehead has a marked 
slope. The nose is small and straight, and narrow and aquiline in shape. The lips 

6 . 



are thin. In norma verticals the head presents the form called w beloides aegyptiacusn 
by Sergi. The ears are well-moulded, with free lobules, which are pierced. 

The hair of the head is wavy, about o m. 16 cent, long, and is of a dark reddish-brown 
(henna-colour) tint : it has the appearance of having been parted in front slightly 
to the left of the middle line, but elsewhere is matted together in a hopeless tangle 
of thick locks. Examined microscopically, the hair was found to be dark brown , and 
its surface was studded with masses of dark foreign matter (embalming material). 

The eye-brows were moderately thick, and met across the middle line, by means of 
a thinner group of hairs on the bridge of the nose. 

The moustache and beard were closely shaved. It was possible to recognize the cut 
ends of a fairly thick moustache , which was most dense at the angles of the mouth. 
There was also a thick patch of hair in front of and coextensive with the auditory 
pinna; but over the masseteric and buccal regions the hair was very scanty. It was 
impossible to find any trace of hair on the polished chin or on the lower lip : nor 
was any hair visible on the neck. Neither on the limbs, thorax, nor on the pubic 
area could any hair be detected. 

All parts of the surface of the body were well-preserved, including the genital organs, 
which appear to have been circumcised. 

As the body had every appearance of being that of a young man, a careful examination 
of the left ilium (which was exposed in the embalming-incision) and the upper end 
of the tibia (exposed in the broken right leg) was made, and other parts of the body 
were examined by means of the Rontgen-rays. It was found that the epiphysis of 
the crest of the ilium was in process of union , being united in front but still free 
behind. This seemed to indicate that the body was that of a man of not more than 
2 5 years, if we accept the statements current in most of the text-books of Anatomy. 
But certain authors put no such limit on the obliteration of the groove between the 
epiphysis cristae and the rest of the bone. Thus in Piersol’s Human Anatomy, which 
was published three years after (in 1907) my report on this mummy was written, 
the following statement occurs : — «they [the secondary centres of ossification of 
the innominate bone] are fused at twenty, excepting perhaps, that for the crest of 
the ilium, the union of which may be delayed; the suture marking its presence is 
one of the last in the body to disappears (p. 337). 

The innominate bone of the mummy supposed to be Amenothes IV (see Diagram 1 1) 
is in precisely the same state as that of Thoutmosis IV; and all the reservations I 
have made in the discussion of the question of his age ( vide infra ) apply with at 
least as much force to the case of Thoutmosis IV. 

But during the eight years that have elapsed since I examined this mummy, and, on 
the assumption that the data given in all the text-books of Anatomy in reference to 
this matter were reliable, estimated his age as 2 5 years, I have examined the epi- 
physis of the iliac crest in several thousands of Egyptian skeletons. In the course 
of this investigation I have discovered that in the Ancient Egyptians it was no uncom- 
mon event for the union of the posterior end of the epiphysis cristae to be delayed ; 
and that the corresponding part of the sulcus often persisted well on into middle 



age. Hence at the present moment I feel much less certain of the youth of Thout- 
mosis IV than I did in 1 9 o 3 before I had learned to distrust the data given so posi- 
tively in treatises on Anatomy. 

In the skiagrams of this mummy, that were taken by Dr. Khayat in 1 903, the epiphysis 
of the vertebral border of the scapula appears to be separate. One cannot decide a 
question of this kind on the impression of a somewhat hazy shadow : but so far as 
it goes appearances support the low estimate of age, even if we accept Testut’s date 
for the union of this epiphysis [vide infra in the report on Amenothes IV), and 
thereby extend the limit to a 8 years. Judging from the texture of the bones as 
revealed by the X-rays one would be inclined to admit that Thoulmosis IV might 
possibly have been even older than this. 

When a small quantity of resinous material was scraped away eight of the upper teeth 
were exposed. They are unworn, white and in excellent condition. None of the 
lower teeth are visible, and it is clear that the upper incisors projected beyond 
the lower teeth, as we have seen to be the case in almost every member of the 
royal family, male and female, throughout the XVIII th Dynasty. 

Thoutmosis IV presents a striking resemblance to Amenothes II , but the latter had a 
more virile appearance and was considerably older. 

In my reconstruction of the face of the latter (Diagram 5 ) I may have unduly exaggerated 
the prominence of the nose. Perhaps his face bore an even stronger likeness to the 
refined outlines of Thoulmosis IV th * features than my crude sketch suggests. 

Metre mill. 

Height of body , i 646 

Height of chin 1 45a 

Height of shoulders 1 4io 

Height of suprasternal notch 1 34o 

Height of umbilicus 1 o4o 

Maximum frontal breadth o og5 

Circumference of head o 537 

Length of nose o o55 

Breadth of nose ■ . . . o 039 

Vertical projections : 

Vertex to root'of nose o 077 

Vertex to mouth o i45 

Vertex to chin o i85 

Vertex to tragus o 111 

Chin to glabella o lai 

Upper lip to glabella o o83 . 5 

Biauricular breadth .. . .. o i3o 

Bizygomatic breadth o i3o 

Diameters of face : 

External orbital breadth o 097 . 5 

Internal orbital breadth (only roughly) , ... . o oa8.5 

j o i84 

j o i43 



Metre mill. 

Bigonial breadth 
Ear (pinna) 

[left better 

Maximum length. 
Maximum breadth 

r. o m. o5a mill. , /. 
r. o m. oa 4 mill., 1. 

Biorbito- nasal arc 

Breadth of shoulders 

Breadth of hips 

Breadth at iliac crests 

Breadth between anterior iliac spines 

Axial length of right tibia 

Length (with malleolus) of right tibia 

Length from prominence of great trochanter to external condyle 
(right femur) 























Right arm : 

Length from tip of acromion to external condyle of humerus o 358 

Length from tip of acromion to olecranon o 363.5 

Length from external condyle to radial styloid o 377 

Length of foot 0 m. oaa mill. 3, maximum breadth 0 m. 067 mill.; 
first and second toes same length. 

In deleting the background in the photograph from which Plate XXIX was made the 
engraver has left a large black mass on the postero-inferior aspect of the head, 
which makes it look more effeminate than is really the case, because the black area 
looks like a chignon of hair. 

61074. The Mummy of Amenothes III (pi. XXXI, XXXII, XXXIII, XXXIV, XXXV, 
G, Cl, CII and CIII). 

This is one of the mummies discovered in 1898, by M. Loret, in the tomb of 
Amenothes II. It was contained in a coffin upon the lid of which the king’s name 
was painted (pi. XXXI), as well as records of inspections of the mummy in the reigns 
of the priest -kings. Upon the shroud (as well as the bandages surrounding the 
mummy) there is a long hieratic inscription in ink written vertically. It is shown in 
plate XXX 11 , in situ on the mummy in fig. i, and on a larger scale in fig. 2 (which 
has been printed upside down); and various parts of the inscription are reproduced 
upon a still larger scale in plates C, Cl, CII and CIII. With the assistance of Dr. Maynard 
Pain I removed the wrappings from this mummy on September 23 rd , 1905. 

There were some fragments of broken garlands lying upon the mummy. Two of these 
can be seen in fig. 1 (pi. XXXII) lying on the left side of the neck, and another 
a little above the midpoint of the left side of the body. 

There were six bands encircling the body and holding in position the shroud. Upon 
the latter, as well as on the retaining bandages, an inscription had been made in 
ink after the process of wrapping the mummy was completed. The inscription extends 
longitudinally. It is seen in situ in fig. 1, plate XXXII, and on a larger scale in fig. 2. 
In order to obtain the latter, sharply-focussed reproduction of the writing , I pinned 



on to the shroud those parts of the circular bandages that were inscribed and then 
cut out the whole of the inscription, and pinned the sheet of linen upon a flat 
board. The photograph is reproduced as fig. a , which unfortunately is shown upside 
down. In plates C, Cl, CII and GUI, the writing is shown upon a still larger scale. 

Underneath the shroud there was a longitudinal strip of very soft bandage which 
extended the whole length of the body. Beneath this a small sheet was wrapped 
around the upper three-fourths of the body, and was tied to the last mentioned 
bandage behind the head. 

A bandage starling on the left side of the foot was wound in a circular manner around 
the ankles, and then spirally up the legs, where its end was intertwined with, but 
not tied to, another bandage, which continued the spiral course upward as far as 
the pelvis. A bandage, starting at the back of the neck, passed twice around the 
head, and then obliquely across the chest to the right hip, across the back to the 
left hip and then obliquely upward in front to end on the right shoulder. 

A tasseled bandage, beginning at the right hip, passed circularly around the hips and 
abdomen to end in front of the chest, where a similar strip began and invested the 
thorax and shoulders. 

The next to be removed began on the right hip and passed around the pelvis and thighs, 
where another bandage began and passed spirally down the legs as far as the ankles. 

The next began behind the left shoulder, passed once around the shoulders and then 
behind the neck, where its end was intertwined with the end of a bandage, which 
was wound spirally around the head and ended upon the right side of the face. 
There another bandage began and passed spirally around the head in the opposite 
direction to end on the back of the head, where another began and passed around the 
head and shoulders to end in front of the right shoulder. 

The next bandage began upon the right side of the head and passed around the head, 
its end being intertwined, in front of the face, with another bandage wound around 
the head. 

The next two bandages encircled the head, the deeper one being intertwined with the 
end of a large sheet, upon which the body had been laid and the sides of the sheet 
pulled up in front of the body, where however they did not meet. The ends were 
collected into bunches, above the'head and below the feet respectively, where they 
were tied with strings of bandage. 

Beneath this sheet there was a ragged bandage of soft muslin wound in a loose spiral 
around the body from the head to the hips. Then there was a loose sheet of cloth 
wrapped once round the middle of the body ; and a sheet of linen , with squares 
marked upon it in red ink, was found placed in front of the legs. 

Then another bandage wound around the legs spirally down to the feet and then back 
again beyond the knees. There were pieces of pebble in this bandage. 

Then a narrow strip of bandage tied around the feet held in position a large sheet , 
folded many times and investing the whole body. 

Under it was another sheet, folded many times, covering the front of the body, exclu- 
sive of the head and feet. 



Then a number of rolls of bandage were found in front of the body, apparently left 
there inadvertently. 

Then there were two spirally-wound bandages surrounding the body from hips to 
shoulders, held in position by a loosely -applied figure-of-8 bandage around the 
chest and shoulders. Then there was another figure-of-8 bandage around hips and 
shoulders, underneath some of the folds of which there were some loose cloths, 
pads of linen and fragments of black resinous material containing scraps of bone, no 
douht parts of the mummy. 

Then two bandages, wound spirally around the head, were removed; and another from 
the legs. 

Then a large sheet spread in front of the body was exposed : and under it a folded 
sheet in front of the head and another covering the front of the body, held in position 
by a bandage around the feet and ankles. 

A circular bandage passing around thorax , abdomen and hips , held in position two 
inscribed cloths, one a torn sheet with hieroglyphs in black ink and red lines, and 
another with red lines only. 

A bandage wound spirally around the head and neck bore a hieratic inscription in 
black ink. 

A sheet of cloth saturated with some gum-like material was placed in front of the face. 

A large sheet placed in front of the body was held in position, below by a bandage 
around the ankles, above by being gummed to deeper-lying wrappings. 

Linen pads on the feet were fixed in position by means of a figure-of-8 bandage around 
the ankles and feet. V. 

A bandage , beginning on the front of the hips , passed spirally around the thighs and 
lower part of the abdomen, and then vertically up the left side over the head to the 
right shoulder (where it was overlapped by a turn of the bandage described next 
but one after this), and then described two figures-of-8 around shoulders and chest. 

A bandage wound spirally around thighs and legs was then removed : and then a 
brittle, gum-saturated spirally-wound bandage was unwound from the head, neck 
and thorax. 

Then was exposed a longitudinal sheet of cloth extending from the feet to the face. Its 
lower end was split, one half passing on each side of the feet, below which they 
were intertwined. The upper end of this bandage was also split, one half passing 
on each side of the head; and the two were tied above the head, thus fixing it in 
position , for it had been broken off the body by the tomb-robbers. 

Another bandage spirally wound around the legs was then removed and the remains of 
the mummy itself were exposed. In front of the feet was a large roller bandage, 
which had been used as a pad to take the place of the missing toes. Part of this 
bandage (the roller) was wound around the ankles which served to hold the unrolled 
part in position. 

Numerous short bandages of varied textures and loose scraps of linen were scattered in 
front of the body. 

[In this account I have been describing the bandages as I took them off, t. e., those 



that were applied last were described first, and of course I began the unrolling of a 
bandage where the bandager finished. ] 

When the body was eventually exposed (pi. XXXIII) it was found to have been most 
severely damaged by the ancient grave-robbers. 

The head was broken off (pi. XXXIV and XXXV); and practically all the soft tissues of 
the head were gone with the exception of the part of the scalp that lies behind the 
coronal suture. Almost the whole of the front wall of the body is missing and the 
back is broken across the loins. 

The right leg is broken away from the trunk and the thigh is separated from the rest 
of the leg. All of the right metatarsal and phalangeal bones and the distal row of 
phalanges of the left foot are missing (pi. XXXIII). 

The broken fragments of the body were held together by means of three bandages tied 
around them. Among the lumps of resin-impregnated linen inside the body-cavity 
were found the leg bone of a fowl and another bird’s limb bone , a human great toe , 
and a left ulnar and radius. 

The bird-bones were obviously parts of mummified food-offerings such as were found 
in most royal tombs of this period. 

Although it was a great disappointment to find only these broken and blackened bones 
to represent the body of Amenothes «the Magnificent the study of the remains 
revealed certain facts of singular interest to the student of the history of embalming. 

For the attempt had been made to restore to the limbs and body of the dead Pharaoh 
some semblance of the form these parts had possessed in life, but had lost during 
the earlier stages of the process of mummification. This was accomplished by stuffing 
under the skin of the legs, arms, neck, and perhaps other parts of the body, a 
resinous mass, which was moulded into form; so that when it set, the members of 
the mummy consisted of masses of stony hardness with a covering of skin. 

Precisely how the packing material was inserted under the skin in the case of Ame- 
nothes III is unknown ; but if we study the analogous process of packing that was 
revived three dynasties later ( vide infra ) we shall obtain very precise information as 
to how it was done in the times of the XXI“ and XXII ni1 dynasties, and how it may 
have been done in the case of Amenothes III. 

A sample of the packing material taken from Amenothes* left arm was examined by 
Mr. A. Lucas, Director of the Government Analytical Laboratory in Cairo. He found 
it to consist of resin mixed with i4.3 o/o of inorganic matter, of which 7.5 0/0 
consisted of a mixture of the carbonate, sulphate and chloride of sodium, i. e., crude 
Egyptian k natron ». 

Resinous material such as this is not known to have been employed at any other period 
for packing underneath the skin. In the time of the XXI"- XXII nd dynasties, linen, 
mud, sand, sawdust or cheese-like substances (mixtures of fat and soda) w T ere the 
stuffing materials employed. 

In no mummy earlier than that of Amenothes III is there any evidence to indicate, or 
even to suggest, that any such curious procedure was put into practice; and as I 
have examined the mummies , not only of Amenothes’ immediate predecessors , but 

Catal. du Mu tee n° 6io5i. 




also of his wife’s parents, Yuaa and Thuaa, without finding any trace of stuffing in 
the limbs, it is safe to conclude that this addition to the embalmers’ technique was 
invented at or near the close of the reign of Amenothes III , when the spirit of change 
was rife in Thebes , and the old conventions in the Arts , as well as in worship , were 
being overthrown. Whether or not the bodies of the XVIII lh dynasty successors of 
Amenothes III were submitted to this strange process of packing it is now impossible 
to say, because nothing but skeletons of same of them have come down to us. But 
we do know that none of the Royal Mummies of the XIX tt and XX th dynasties were 
so treated : and it was not until the close of the XX th or the beginning of the XXI*' 
dynasties that the practice was revived , and became part of the regular routine of 
mummification during the XXI * 1 and XXII nd dynasties. 

It is of some historical interest to note that this striking innovation must necessarily 
have been put into practice during the first days of the reign of Amenothes IV, 
thereby suggesting that the spirit of reform was already operating, and that its 
inspiration may have been Ttyi or even Amenothes III, rather than their erratic son. 

This stuffing of material under the skin must not be confused with the process of 
packing the cavity of the body, which always formed part of the process of embal- 
ming from the time of the Ancient Empire until Roman times. 

Amenothes III was almost completely bald, having only scanty hair on the temples. 
The temporal parts of the coronal suture were obliterated. The teeth however were 
worn only to a moderate degree. On the right side , though not on the left (pi. XXXIV) , 
the teeth of both upper and lower jaws were thickly encrusted with tartar : and 
there had been an extensive alveolar abscess below the right lower incisors, and a 
smaller one above the right upper canine. The upper incisor teeth had been lost 
before the death of Amenothes and the alveolar process absorbed in part : the right 
upper lateral incisor had been recently lost, for its alveolus and the perforation 
(facial) of a small alveolar abscess are still present (pi. XXXV). There is also evidence 
of suppuration around the anterior lateral root of the left, lower, first molar. [All of 
these points can be verified by examining plates XXXIV and XXXV with a hand-lens]. 
The cavity of the mouth is still occupied by a large mass of resin , in which is 
embedded the left, lower, median incisor, which must have fallen out of its socket 
after the body was embalmed (pi. XXXV). 

During the last years of his life Amenothes III must have suffered most acutely from 
tooth-ache and dental abscesses. 

It is not possible to form any precise estimate of the king’s age from the data available. 
Whether he was nearer forty or fifty years must remain an open question. The skull 
is large and pentagonoid, with moderate superciliary ridges and a fairly prominent 
occiput. The face is a long, narrow, ovoid, or, when the resin stuffing of the cheeks 
is taken into account (see pi. XXXV), ellipsoid : the orbits are small and slightly 
oblique : the nasal skeleton is moderately flat , like those of the Pharaoh’s ancestors. 
The chin is narrow and pointed; the mandible low and slightly built : its typically 
Egyptian form is in marked contrast to the equally definitely alien shape seen in 
the next skeleton to be discussed (see pi. XXXVI and XXXVII). 



The cranial length is o m. igA mill. : the cranial breadth (not including sea 1 P )1 
o m. 1 48 mill. : circumference, o m. 55 o mill.; auricular height, om. tt8 mill.; 
total facial height (after allowing for slight separation of the jaws), o m. i a a mill.; 
upper facial height, o m. o 7 3 mill.; minimal frontal breadth, 0 m. og 5 mill.; 
bizygomatic breadth, 0 m. 1 3 3 mill.; bigonial breadth, o m. 09A mill.; nasal 
height, 0 m. o 53 mill.; nasal breadth, 0 m. 096 mill.; interorbital breadth, 
0 m. 027 mill.; left orbit, 0 m. o 3 g mill, x o m. o 34 mill. : right orbit, 
0 m. 039 mill. 5 x o m. o 34 mill. 5 : and chin-vertex projection, 0 m. 210 mill. 

Amenolhes III was 1 m. 56 1 mill, in height. 

Small pads of cloths, saturated with some gummy material, were removed from the 
nostrils; and it was then found that in forcing a passage into the cranial cavity the 
nasal septum and the turbinate ridges had been completely ablated , and the whole 
ethmoid broken away. 

The arms were placed in positions similar to those already described in the cases of 
Thoutmosis II and his successors. 

61075. The bones of a skeleton supposed to be that 0 ! Amenothes IV (Khou- 
niatonou) (pi. XXXVI and XXXVII). 

In January 1907, during the course of the excavations in the BibAn el Molouk sub- 
sidized by Mr. Theodore M. Davis, a tomb was found containing a large series of 
objects, some of which had obviously been part of the furniture of Queen Tiyi’s 
tomb, and others equally surely had come from the tomb of her son, the heretic 
king, Khouniatonou or Akhenaten (also variously transliterated Ikhnaton, Khuenaton 
and in many other spellings). The full account of the circumstances of the discovery 
and of the nature of the objects found in the tomb has been given by Mr. Davis, 
M. Maspero and others, in The Tomb of Queen Tiyx (Theodore M. Davis’ Excavations : 
BibAn el Moiftk , London, 1910). 

From the circumstances under which the coffin and the human remains were found , 
in association with many inscribed objects bearing the name Khouniatonou, which 
also appeared not only on the coffin itself but also on the gold bands encircling the 
mummv, there can no longer be any doubt that the body found in this tomb was 
either that of the heretic king or was believed to be his corpse by the embalmers. 
Although it frequently happened ( vide supra ) that mummies of royal personages 
were placed in coffins that were not made for them, it must be remembered that 
this was done only during the hasty preparations (in the XXI“ Dynasty) for removing 
them to a hiding place at Delr el Bahari. The mummy under consideration, however, 
was not rewrapped. It had not been plundered, but was found in its original 
wrappings, upon which were gold bands bearing the name of Khouniatonou. It is 
hardly credible that the embalmers of the Pharaoh’s mummy could have put some 
other body in place of it. 

Thus we have the most positive evidence that these bones are the remains of Khou- 

7 - 



I do not suppose that any unprejudiced scholar who studies the archaeological evidence 
alone would harbour any doubt of the identity of this mummy , if it were not for 
the fact that it is difficult from the anatomical evidence to assign an age to this 
skeleton sufficiently great to satisfy the demands of most historians, who want at 
least 3 o years into which to crowd the events of Khouniatonou’s eventful reign. 

Under these circumstances I must set forth the anatomical evidence in greater detail 
than was thought desirable in The Tomb of Queen Tiyi, from which Mr. Davis 
requested me to omit all technicalities. 

The ages assigned by different anatomists as the limes when the epiphyses join and 
become consolidated present a considerable range of variation. Hence, in the pre- 
sent state of our knowledge, it would be rash and altogether unjustifiable to give 
in figures the precise age of a skeleton without making the reservation that it might 
be several years older or younger than the estimate. 

This will appear from the following detailed summary. 

Scapula completely ossified. 

Poirier ( Traitd £ Analomie humaine, par Paul Poirier et A. Gharpy, tome I", 1 899 , p. i 3 g) 
states that the marginal epiphyses do not join until from 2 5 to 98 years of age : 
according to Testut ( Traili d’A natomie humaine, p. aSg they pin between 22 and 
2 5 years : various other books mention no to 2 5 years » or before 2 5 years. Thus 
the evidence of the completely ossified scapula might be interpreted as meanin| that 
the individual was 2 5 years old or perhaps more than 2 8 years. 

The vertebral column presents the following conditions. 

The first three vertebrae are completely ossified. 

Thomson ( Cunningham’s Text Book of Anatomy} says the inferior epiphysis of axis joins 
body at 2 5 years : according to Piersol (Human Anatomy ) the process is complete 
at 20 years : according to Testut between 20 and 2 5 years (p. 87), but four pages 
later on, in the same treatise, it is stated that the ossification of the vertebral column 
progresses with extreme slowness and is not complete until from the 2 5 th to the 
3 o th years. 

Fourth cervical vertebra : inferior epiphysis of body not completely fused. 

Fifth cervical vertebra : same condition. 

In view of the above statements this condition may indicate an age of not more than 
3 o years, or than 2 5 or even 20 years, according to different authorities. 

Sixth and seventh cervical vertebrae : completely ossified. 

In the dorsal series the seventh, ninth, tenth, eleventh and twelfth vertebrae are com- 
pletely ossified : but in the cases of the rest the epiphyses have fused onlv a short 
time before death : the lower epiphysis of the fourth and the upper epiphysis of the 
fifth dorsal vertebrae had only just begun to fuse to the bodies. 

AH five lumbar vertebrae are completely ossified. 

Poirier (p. 343 ) tells us that the ossification of the y* h cervical vertebra is finished at 
9 5 years : the epiphyses of the upper dorsal vertebrae are almost fused, and the 
process of fusion has begun in the lumbar and lower sacral segments. Between 2 5 
and 3 0 years the union of the other epiphyses is effected. 



The sacrum is four-pieced : its lateral masses are completely consolidated, but the 
three intercentral fissures were just closed or in process of closing. 

The suture between segments 3 and 4 was just closed; that between 3 and a was 
closed laterally ; and that betw een a and i was in process of closing laterally. 

According to Thomson ( op.cit p. g4) the fissure between segments 3 and 4 begins 
to close at 1 8 years , and the junction between i and a is not complete until a 5 
years or later, even up to 3o years, according to Poirier (p. 34 7 ). Testut states 
( 1 op . cit., p. 3o) that the fusion of the sacral vertebrae is not complete as a rule 
until from a 5 to 3o years. 

Thus if we take into consideration the fact that half the vertebral column is fully ossified 
and that in the other half the process is in the penultimate stage of completion, the 
possibility is opened up, provided we follow Testut in preference to other autho- 
rities, that this individual may have been old enough to satisfy the demands of the 
historians as to Rhouniatonou’s age. 

The coccyx was not amongst the bones sent to me in Cairo from Luxsor. 

The epiphyses on the heads and tubercles of the ribs were just joining in most cases, 
but were separate in a few instances. 

According to Thomson the fusion of these elements is completed by the a 5 th years : 
Testut gives the age as 16 to a 5 years. Unless there are exceptions to these 
estimates the state of the ribs in this case would impose a limit of a 5 years to 
the age. 

Although the first segment of the mesoslernum is separate there is just a possibility 
that it may have been broken off, after having been in the process of joining at the 
time of death. 

Testut assigns ao to a 5 years as the time during which this process of joining may 
occur : .Thomson says (op. cit., p. 96 , 97 ) : « Union between these segments occurs 
rather irregularly, and is liable to much variations; and « fusion of the second with 
the first segment may not be complete till the ao th to a 5 th years. 

The sternal epiphysis of the clavicle is still separate. 

Poirier (op. cil., p. 139 ) and Testut (op. cit.,. p. a54) give aa to a5 years as its time 
of joining; Thomson, «a5 or thereabouts ». 

All the limb-bones, excepting the ossa innominata and clavicles only, are fully ossified 
and consolidated. 

Testut (op. cit., a 66 ) states that the upper epiphysis of the humerus does not join 
until a5 or a 6 years; according to Thomson, ctabout a5 yearsw. 

Thus , if we adopt these estimations , the slate of the humeri neutralizes the suggestion 
of an age less than a 5 or thereabouts , in support of which the data supplied by the 
clavicles and ribs might be adduced. Against this, however, is Poirier’s statement 
that the upper epiphysis of the humerus joins the shaft at from a a to a 5 years of 
age in the male. 

In the ossa innominata the epiphyses of the ischial tuberosities are consolidated and 
those of the pubo-ischial rami were in process of joining at the time of death. The 
epiphysis of the crests is joined to the ilium; but, in the posterior 45 millimetres of 



its extent on the right side (Diagram 1 1) and 3 o millimetres on the left, a slight 
cleft is present along the inner edge of the epiphysis crislae. 

Testut [op. cit., p. 3 oo) says the crest of the ilium 
does not lose its independence until 2 4 or 2 5 
years of age. 

In the skull the cranial sutures show no signs of 
obliteration : the teeth are unworn and the right 
upper « wisdom-tooth u is not erupted. 

If we take into consideration all the facts set forth 
in this statement, not only the data concerning 
the immaturity of certain bones , but also those 
of the fully ossified parts of the skeleton; and 
bear in mind the wide range of variation of the 
control figures — in some cases as much as ten 
years between different authorities’ estimates 
of when particular bones cease growing — upon which any argument as to age 
must be based; two judgments emerge quite clearly from this mass of apparent 
contradictions • a that, if we accept the generally admitted criteria, this skeleton is 
that of a man about 2 5 or 26 years of age; and 6) that no anatomist would be 
justified in refusing to admit that this individual may have been several years 
younger or older than the above estimate, which after all is based upon ave-' 

To turn to the specific problem before us , if, with such clear archaeological evidence 
to indicate that these are the remains of Khouniatonou , the historian can produce 
irrefutable facts showing that the heretic king must have been 27, or even 3 o , years 
of age, I would be prepared to admit that the weight of the anatomical evidence 
in opposition to the admission of that fact is too slight to be considered absolutely 

I do not think there can be any serious doubt that these are really the remains of 
Khouniatonou : but in the light of the anatomical evidence it is important that the 
historical evidence should be submitted to most searching and critical examination 
for the purpose of deciding how old the Heretic really was at the time of his death. 
There is information suggesting that he was a minor at the time of his father’s 
death and that he reigned seventeen years. Surely, then, there need be no great 
straining of the evidence to bring the anatomical and historical facts into harmony, 
the one with the other. 

The skull presents a number of interesting and significant features. The cranium is 
broad and relatively flattened, its measurements being o m. 189 mill, in length; 
0 m. 1 54 mill, in breadth; 0 m. 1 36 mill, in height (basibregmatic); o m. 099 mill. , 
minimal frontal breadth; and a circumference of 0 m. 545 mill. 

Although 0 m. 1 5 4 mill, is quite an exceptional breadth for an Egyptian skull , all 
the other numbers are smaller than those obtained in the case of Amenothes III. 
Nevertheless, the form of the cranium and the fact that it is exceptionally thin in 



most places and relatively thick in others indicate that a condition of hydrocephalus 
was present during life. When in Egypt I showed this cranium to my colleague, 
Professor A. R. Ferguson, Professor of Pathology in the Cairo School of Medicine, 
and he assured me that the signs of hydrocephalus were unquestionable. 

Unfortunately the facial skeleton was badly damaged (in ancient times) by the collapse 
of the lid of the coffin , which fell upon the face. The right side of the skull was 
smashed in and the face broken into fragments. To add to this misfortune, when 
these fragments were being packed in Luxsor for transmission to me in Cairo many 
of the smaller pieces of bone were overlooked or regarded as useless trifles. Hence , 
when I came to build up from the pieces the left side of the face (pi. XXXVI) — 
the right side was much too damaged and incomplete — the nasal skeleton was 
found to be missing. 

However, sufficient of the facial skeleton has been restored to give one a fairly accurate 
conception of its form when it was intact. 

The general form of the face presents a marked contrast to that of Amenothes III 
(compare pi. XXXVI with pi. XXXIV); but the configuration of the upper part of 
the face, including the forehead, is identical with that of Khouniatonou s maternal 
grandfather, Iouiya (see Quibell’s Tomb of Yuaa and Thuiu, Catalogue g4n£ral, 
1908 , pi. LVIH). The contrasts in the architecture of the facial skeleton in 
Amenothes III and his son are far more than mere individual differences, for they 
are racial. Amenothes III rd 8 face is cast in the Egyptian mould : but in the case of 
Khouniatonou , the jaw is typically Armenoid , a fact that is most clearly demonstrated 
in the form of its ascending ramus (pi. XXXVI). The prominence of the super- 
ciliary ridges and the sloping forehead are other signs of this alien influence. But 
there are some curious points of resemblance to Amenothes III and his family. The 
projection of the upper incisors (pi. XXXVI), to which I have frequently referred 
as a family trait of the Royal House in the XVIII th Dynasty, is seen in this skull 

In the skull of Amenothes III a curious bony ridge passes from the nasal spine to the 
alveolar point, leaving a well-marked depression on each side of it. In this skull the 
same peculiarities appear in an even more pronounced form. 

There are also points of resemblance in the molar teeth. 

Khouniatonou was a bigger man than his father, who was 1 m. 56 1 mill., though not 
so tall as Amenothes II (who was 1 m. 67 3 mill.) on the paternal side, nor Iouiya 
(who was 1 m. 65i mill.) on the maternal side of his ancestry. 

The following figures were obtained on measuring the bones of this mummy. 

Right femur, oblique length (o m. 45o mill. 5), maximum length (o m. 455 mill.). 
(The corresponding measurements in the case of Amenothes III are 0 m. 42 1 mill, 
and o m. 4a4 mill. 5 respectively). 

Left femur, obi., 0 m. 453 mill., max., 0 m. 455 mill. 5. 

Left tibia, axial length, 0 m. 355 mill. 5; Right tibia, axial length, 0 m. 354 mill. 

Tarsal height (astragalus and calcaneum) o m. 066 mill. 

Left humerus, oblique length, 0 m. 3i 1 mill.; maximum length, 0 m. 319 mill. 



The corresponding measurements of the right humerus are o m. 3 i A mill, and o m. 
3 a a mill, respectively; and of the right humerus of Amenothes III o ro. a8i mill. 5 
and o m. a 85 mill, respectively. 

61076. The Mummy found in Baqt’s Coffin (pi. XXXIX). 

This is the mummy contained in the coffin bearing the inscription « royal daughter, 
royal sister Mashonttimihous, concerning which M. Maspero makes the following 
remarks : « La momie , d^cor^e de guirlandes , est fausse comme celle de la prin- 
cesse Sitamon \yide supra], EUe a fouill^e par les Arabes, et on en distingue les 
&6ments a travers les trous pratiques dans le maillot. Un morceau de cercueil a 
vernis jaune , de la XX" dynastie , accompagne d’un manche de miroir et de quelques 
autrcs menus objets, tient lieu de corps : un paquet de chiffons simule la t£te, un 
paquet de chiffons les piedsn (p. 544 ). 

The appearance of this mummy proved to be most deceptive. It consisted of an enor- 
mous mass of linen fdling the whole coffin. Plunderers had made two deep holes into 
this mass, revealing the fragment of gaudy yellow coffin-lid referred to in 
M. Maspero’s account; but nothing else could be felt through these holes. On June 
27 th , 1909, I unrolled the wrappings and found amongst a mass of brown friable 
bandages , occupying the lower part of the large bundle , most of the hones of the 
skeleton of a young woman about 2 1 years of age. She was exceedingly slenderly 

She has a small ovoid face, a moderately prominent nose, and small horizontal ellip- 
tical orbits; but the mandible conforms to an alien (non-Egyptian) type, one how- 
ever which has been common in Lower Egypt since the time of the Ancient Empire, 
and is fairly often seen among the remains of the Upper Egyptian aristocracy. The 
skull has the large, broad, flat ovoid form usually seen in association with the jaw, 
to which I have just referred (pi. XXXIX). 

The maximum length of the skull is o m. 186 mill., maximum breadth 0 m. 
i 44 mill., minimum frontal breadth 0 m. 095 mill., basi-bregmatic height 
o m. issA mill., Bizygomatic breadth 0 m. 128 mill., total facial height 0 m. 
1 15 mill., upper facial height 0 m. 069 mill, and the nasal height and breadth 
respectively 0 m. o 48 mill, and 0 m. oe 4 mill. The presence of the skin on the 
forehead prevents the accurate measurement of the cranial base (including the skin 
it is o m. 100 mill.), but without it would be probably o m. 098 mill.; the facial 
base is 0 m. 093 mill. For the same reason it is not possible to measure the orbits 
accurately but each is about 0 m. o 38 mill., broad and about 0 m. o 34 mill. deep. 

The maximum and oblique lengths respectively of the right femur are 0 m. 4 4 0 mill, 
and 0 m. 433 mill, and of the left 0 m. 438 mill, and 0 m. 435 mill. : the dia- 
meter of the right femoral head is 0 m. 037 mill. 

The maximum and oblique lengths respectively of the right humerus are o m. 3 1 1 mill, 
and 3 o 4 and of the left 0 m. 3o2 mill, and 0 m. 299 mill. The left coronoid 
fossa, but not the right, is perforated. 



The third molar teeth are just erupting. The epiphyses of the bodies of the vertebrae 
and of the crests of the ilia are still separate : the lower epiphyses pf the ulnae and 
radii are just joined. 

There is nothing to indicate with certainty whose mummy this is or when it was mum- 
mified. If the bandages found in the immediate neighbourhood of the bones formed 
part of the mummy the latter may have been of XVIII th Dynasty date. 

61077. The Mummy of Seti I (pi. XXXVIII, XL, XLI and Frontispiece). 

This mummy was unwrapped by M. Maspero on june 9 th , 1886. The proc&s-verbal 
has been briefly set forth in Les Momies royales (p. 554 , 555 , and Appendix, II, 
p. 77a and 773); and with greater detail in the American Journal of Archaeology, 
1886, volume III, p. 33 1 to 333 , and also in Recueil de travaux, t. VIII, p. 179 
to 181. 

There is nothing in the mode of treatment of this mummy to distinguish it from that 
in vogue at the latter part of the XVIII th Dynasty. The head is in a good state of 
preservation and reveals to us one of the most perfect examples of manly dignity 
displayed in a mummy that has come down from ancient Egypt. But the body has 
suffered severely at the hands of the tomb-robbers. The head is broken off the trunk 
and the anterior wall of the abdomen has been smashed. 

The identification of this mummy as Seti I was based wholly upon the inscription on 
the lid of the coffin, where the name appears in hieroglyphs. Three hieratic inscriptions 
on the coffin describe the attention given to the mummy and its wanderings. 
« D’apr^s le premier, s 1 ’an VI, le 7 du deuxieme mois de Shalt, le premier pro- 
phete d’Amon , Hrihorou , envoya restaurer Tappareil fun^raire du roi S6ti I" n ; le 
second declare que, «l’an XVI, le 7 du quatrikme mois de Pirit, sous le roi 
Siamou Hrihorou, on retira le roi S 4 ti I" de son tombeau pour le ddposer dans la 
tombe de la princesse Anhapoun. L’op 4 ration faite, le prGtre charge du culte royal 
tdmoigna devant le Pharaon de la condition de la momie, et declare que le corps 
n’avait souffert aucun dommage dans le transfert. EnGn «en Tan X, le 11 du 
quatri&me mois de Pirit, sous le grand pr 4 tre Pinotmou I w , le roi S&i I" fut trans- 
portd dans le tombeau d’Am 4 n 6 thes I"»; en foi de quoi on 6crivit le troisieme et 
dernier proems -verbal. La momie < 5 tait enveIopp( 5 e d’une forte toile jaun&tre et ne 
portait aucune inscription apparenle# [Guide du Visiteur). 

At present the whole surface of the body, excepting the head only, is covered with a 
black mass of bandage impregnated with resinous material. All the exposed areas of 
skin, including the face, are quite black; but M. Maspero informs me that when 
the head was first exposed in 1886 the skin was distinctly brown and not black. 

The hands are folded in front of the chest. The upper arms are vertical and each fore- 
arm is flexed so that the hand is placed in front of the opposite shoulder. The left 
forearm is placed in front of the right. 

The left side of the chest is stuffed with black masses of resin-impregnated linen , now 
of stony hardness. In the apex of the right side of the thorax there is a solid black 

Catal. du Muie'e, n° 6io5i. 




mass about the size of a closed fist. It is not linen, but some brittle jet-black 
material , with a shining surface when fractured. Below this and separated from it 
by a wide interval there is a large heart-shaped mass of stony consistency, which 
has a dull brown colour when scraped. It seems to be a viscus, perhaps the heart, 
but it is not possible to express any positive opinion without cutting it and submi- 
tting a piece of it to microscopical examination. It was the usual custom at all periods 
to leave the heart in the body. The fact that the object under consideration is in the 
right side of the thorax cannot be urged as a reason against its identification as the 
heart, because it usually happened that the embalmer, operating through the 
embalming wound in the left flank, pushed the heart over to the right side of the 
body, when he was excising the other viscera. 

The common statement that the heart was placed in a Canopic Jar is due to a mistaken 
generalisation from isolated cases, in which the heart, or some fragment of it, was 
cut out accidentally by a careless embalmer. There can be no doubt that it was the 
usual procedure to leave the heart in the body attached by the great vessels. 

Packed around this mass, which is probably the heart, there is a considerable quantity 
of resin-impregnated linen. 

The abdominal cavity was partially filled with black masses of similarly treated cloth , 
hut there is no trace of any viscus. Whether the kidney was left, as Diodorus, wri- 
ting many centuries later, described, it is impossible to say. 

Seti I was probably 1 m. 665 mill, in height when alive. That is the present height 
of his mummy together with a thin layer of wrappings on the feet, which are 
approximately of the same thickness as the skin on his heels was. The height of the 
symphysis pubis (with the same reservation) is o m. 897 mill, [probably a mistake? 
0 m. 797 mill.]; pubes to chin, 0 m. 578 mill.; pubes to nose, 0 m. 6 44 mill.; 
breath of shoulders, 0 m. 4 oo mill.; breadth at iliac crests, 0 m. 295 mill.; 
intertrochanteric breadth (with wrappings); estimated length (axial) of tibia, 0 m. 
375 mill.; distance from upper surface of tibia to middle ofPoupart’s ligament, 
0 m. 46 1 mill.; estimated length of humerus, o m. 335 mill.; and estimated 
length of radius, o m. 264 mill. The toes are broken off, but the foot must have 
been about 0 m. 23 o mill, in length : the maximum length of the hand is 
0 m. 220 mill. 

The length of the head (with a thin layer of bandages on the occiput) is 0 m. 
196 mill. ; breadth (without bandages), 0 m. i 43 ; minimal frontal breadth, 
0 m. 101 mill.; total facial height, 0 m. 128 mill.; upper facial height, 0 m. 
080 mill.; length and breadth of nose, 0 m. 060 mill, and o m. o 33 mill.; right 
orbit, 0 m. o 5 o mill, by 0 m. o 3 o mill.; left orbit, 0 m. 047 mill, by 0 m. 
o3i mill.; bizygomatic breadth, 0 m. i 38 mill.; bigonial breadth, o m. 101 mill.; 
cranial circumference, o m. 55 o mill.; auricular height, 0 m. 122 mill.; height, 
chin to vertex, 0 m. 208 mill. 

The face is ovoid , but so nearly ellipsoid that when the lower half of the face was 
filled out by the jaw muscles in life it must have been ellipsoid. 

The superciliary eminences are fairly prominent and the forehead sloping. The eyelids 



are closed and, so far as one can tell, no packing material has been inserted be- 
neathe them. No hair is visible, either on the scalp or face, excepting the eyebrows. 
The big heavy jaw, with its wide and strong chin, as well as the more robust build 
of the whole face , present a marked contrast to the features of the XVIII th Dynasty 
rulers, which were cast in a smaller and more refined mould than the big-featured 
Pharaohs of the XIX th Dynasty. Not only in the features of jaw, face and forehead, 
but also in his cranial form, Seti I differs from his predecessors of the XVIII th 
Dynasty; and the contrast is not merely an individual, but largely a racial one also. 
Although the members of the royal family in the XVIII th Dynasty present features 
which it is difficult to reconcile with the Egyptian type , on the whole they conform 
to that physical type; but in Seti I many more alien (Asiatic) traits in face and 
cranium are manifested and there can be no doubt that he and his successors are 
less characteristically Egyptian than his predecessors were. 

• M. Maspero realized these facts when he wrote the following sentences in his Prock- 
verbal de I’ouverture des Momies de Ramsk II et Ramses III (Bulletin de llnstitut 
dgyptien, 1886). « Seti I" et Ramses II sont d’un type assez different. Ils se ratta- 
chaient par les femmes a 1’ancienne lign 4 e ; mais ce qu’ils avaient en eux de sang 
royal ne leur avait donn 4 aucun des traits qui distinguent les Thoulmos et les Amen- 
hotpou v (p. 969). 

I quote the following remarks from Professor Virchow’s account (op. cit. supra) of this 
m um my. « Sie ist die besterhaltene der ganzen Reihe und macht noch jetzt den 
Eindruch eines kraftigen, vollendet schonen Mannes». « Der feingeschnittene und 
fast europaisch aussehende Kopf ist gestrecht und ein wenig nach hinten zuruck- 
gebogen; die kahle und etwas niedige, sehr hreit (1 o6 mm ), voll gerundete , aber 
etwas zuriickgelegte Stirn ganz glalt, nur die Orbitalwiilste leicht vortretend. Die 
Augen geschlossen wie eines Schlafenden. Der Kopf lang und etwas flach gewolbt, 
dolichochamaecephal ( Langenbreitenindex 7A.7, Ohrhohenindex 58 . 9 ). Das 
Gesicht hoch und oval, an der Grenze der Leptoprosopie (Index 89.9). Die Nase 
fein, schmal, lang, aquilin, wie in den alten Abbildungen; nur an der Grenze des 
knochernen und knorpeligen Theils liegt ein, durch das Eintrocknen entstandener 
Absatz; Index 54 . 3 ». « Der Unterkiefer hoch, das Kinn sehr breit, dreiecking, 
etwas vortretend, in der Milte des unteren Randes gebuchteta (p. 773). 

On p. 786 of the same work Professor Virchow sets forth a large series of measure- 
ments of this mummy, many of which reveal wide discrepancies, when compared 
with the figures I have recorded above, as the results of measurements made by 
Dr. Derry and myself. 

61078. 'the mummy of Ramses II (pi. XLII, XL1II and XL1V). 

«Le 1" juin 1886, sur Tordre et en presence du Khedive (Tewfik), la momie de 
Ramses II fut ouverte solennellement n Les Momies royales, p. 56 o — see also 
p. 765-767 and 773-775). 




Upon the coffin was inscribed the name of the Pharaoh in hieroglyphs, as well as 
reports written in hieratic analogous to those found on Seli 1 “* coffin informing 
us that in wl’an X du grand pretre Pinotmou, on transporta RamsAs II dans 
le tombeau d’AmAnothes, en meme temps que son pAre SAli I w » ( Guide du 

«Le style du monument et certains details d’orthographe nous reportaient a la XX' 
dynastie plut6t qua la XIX'. Pour savoir si la momie Atait bien celle de Ramses II, 
comme le prAtendent les inscriptions du couvercle, M. Maspero fit enlever une partie 
des bandages qui paraissaient Atre mal attaches, et il trouva, sur la poitrine du 
maillot original, une inscription a l’encre en hiAratique, dont la teneur ne laisse 
subsister aucun doute; le grand prAlre Pinotmou I" y declare qu’il a fait Sparer 
1 ’appareil funAraire de Ramses II en Tan XVI » ( Guide du Visiteur). 

M. Maspero’s account of the unwrapping of this mummy ( Bulletins de Unslilul igyptien , 
1886, p. 253 - 255 ) is as follows. «La presence de cette derniAre inscription une 
fois constate par S. A. le Khedive et par les hautes personnes rAunies dans la salle, 
la premiere enveloppe fut enlevAe, et Ton decouvrit successivement une bande 
d’Atoffe large d’environ 0 m. 20 cent., enroulee autour du corps, puis un second 
linceul cousu et maintenu d’espace par des bandes etroites , puis deux Apaisseurs de 
bandelettes et une piAce de toile fine lendue de la tete aux pieds. Une image de la 
dAesse Nouit, d’environ un metre, y est dessinAe en couleur rouge et noire, ainsi 
que le prescrivait le rituel; le profil de la dAesse rappelle, a s’y mAprendre, le profil 
pur et dAlicat de SAti 1 ", tel que nous le font connaltre les bas-reliefs de Thebes et 
d’Abydos. Une bande nouvelle Atait placAe sous cet amulette, puis une couche de 
pieces de toile, pliAes en carrA et maculAes par la matiAre bitumineuse dont les em- 
baumeurs s’Ataient servis. Cette derniAre enveloppe AcartAe , Ramses II apparut. II 
est grand, bien conformA, parfaitement symAtrique W. La tAte est allongAe, petite par 
rapport au corps. Le sommet du crAne est entierement denude. Les cheveux , rares 
sur les tempes, s’Apaississent a la nuque et forment de veritables meches lisses et 
droiles, d’environ 0 m. o5 cent, de longueur : blancs au moment de la mort, ils ont 
AtA teints en jaune-clair par les parfums. Le front est has, Atroit, l’arcade sourciliere 
saillante, l’ceil petit, le nez long, mince, busquA comme le nez des Bourbons, lAgA- 
rement AcrasA au bout par la pression du maillot, la tempe creuse, la pommette 
proAminente, 1 ’oreille ronde, AcartAe de la tAte ,. la mAchoire forte et puissante, le 
menton trAs long. La boucbe, largement fendue, est bordAe de lAvres Apaisses et 
charnues; elle Atait remplie d’une pAte noirAtre, dont une partie, dAtachAe au ciseau, 
a laissA entrevoir quelques dents trAs usAes et trAs friables, mais blanches et bien 
entretenues. La moustache et la barbe peu fournies et rasAes avec soin pendant la 
vie, avaient crfi. au cours de la derniAre maladie ou aprAs la mort; les poils, blancs 
comme ceux de la chevelure, mais rudes et hArissAs, ont une longueur de 2 ou 3 
millimAtres. La peau est d’un jaune terreux, plaquAe de noir. En rAsumA, le masque 

O) M 4 me apr& le des verttbres et la retraction prodoite par la momification , il mesure encore 

1 m. 7 a cent. 



de la momie donne tres suffisamment Tid4e de ce qu’4tait le masque du roi vivant : „• 
une expression peu intelligente , peut-4tre 14g&rement bestiale, mais de la fierte , de 
Tobstination et un air de majestd souveraine qui perce encore sous l’appareil de 
I’embaumement. Le reste du corps n’est pas moins bien conserve que la l4te , mais 
la reduction des chairs en a modifni plus profond<$ment l’aspect exterieur. Le cou 
n’a plus que le diametre de la colonne verlebrale. La poxtrine est ample, les tSpaules- 
sont hautes, les bras croises sur la poitrine, les mains fines et rougies de henn4, les 
ongles tr&s beaux, tallies a la hauteur de la chair et soign4s comme ceux dune 
petite maltresse : la plaie par laquelle les embaumeurs avaient 6t<5 les viscfcres 
s’ouvre beanie au flanc gauche. Les parties g4nitales ont 4te enlev4es a 1 aide d un 
instrument tranchant, et probablement , selon un usage assez repandu , ensevelies a 
part dans le creux d un Osins en bois. Les cuisses et les jambes sont d4charn4es , les 
pieds longs, minces, un peu plats, frott&s de henn4 comme les mains. Les os sont 
faibles et fragiles, les muscles sont atrophies par d4g4n4rescence s4nile : on sail, en 
effet, que Ramses II regna nombre d’annees avec son p4re S4ti I", soixante-sept ans 
seul, et dut mourir presque centenaire. » 

It is open to question whether the discolouration of the finger and toe-nails may not 
be due to the staining by resinous embalming-materials and not to henna : and it 
is also not altogether certain that the genital organs were intentionally ablated. It is 
quite possible that they may have been broken off accidentally by the tomb-robbers 
who stripped the mummy in search of spoil (pi. XLII). It has already been pointed 
out that the pudenda were not removed in Ahinosis I , Thoutmosis I , Thoutmosis I' 
Amenolhes II, and Yuaa , but that the state of affairs in Thoutmosis II, Thoutmosis III 
and the unknown man in Nibsoni’s coffin was uncertain. In the case of Seti I the 
wrappings were not removed , so that no positive statement of the mode of treatment 
of the pudenda can be made. In Ramses II" 4 '* successor Menephtah, the penis was 
left but the scrotum removed; and in all the later Pharaohs the genital organs were 
left intact. 

It seems unlikely that in so important a matter as the treatment of the genital organs 
the embalmers should suddenly have broken away from the convention of their time 
in the case of Thoutmosis II and III, but not in their immediate predecessors and 
successors , and again in the succeding dynasty in the case of Ramses II. The absence 
of the genital organs in the latter Pharaoh seems to me to be due to accidental 
circumstances (see pi. XLII). 

In support of this contention I would call attention, not only to the broken edges of the 
area from which the organs have been removed, but also to the fact that the 
wrappings (resin-impregnated bandages) cease abruptly at the edges of this patch 
(i. e. do not cover it) and have broken edges. 

It is curious that in the cases of Seti I and Ramses II the embalmers should have 
departed from the usual practice (both in the late XVIII th and the XIX th dynastic 
periods) of placing the right forearm in front of the left. 

The measurement of Ramses II ,ld ’‘ height made by Dr. Derry andmyselfwas 1 m .733 mill.; 
but Professor Virchow says «die ganze Lange der sehr mageren Mumie maass 



H r Brugsch-Bey zu i m. 720 mill., also am 0 m. i 55 mill, laager als die seines 
Vatersn [op. cit., p. 77/1). 

Height of upper margin of symphysis pubis o m. 871 mill. 

Height of chin above symphysis pubis o 668 

Height of suprasternal notch above pubis o 5 a 5 

Height of nasal spine above pubis o 786 

Breadth of shoulders 0 38 1 

Interacromial breadth — 0 337,5 

Estimated length, right humerus o 33 a 

Estimated length, left radius 0 267 

Estimated length, left femur o 46 o 

Estimated length , left tibia 0 358 

Distance from middle of Poupart’s ligament to upper surface 

of tibia o 468 

Breadth at iliac crests o 3i2 

Bitrochanteric breadth o 3 io 

Length of foot o 2 34 

Breadth of foot o 074 

The cranium is a long narrow ovoid, with a prominent occiput, and without any 
depression to interrupt the sweep of the curve from the parietal to the occipital 
region (pi. XLIV, fig. 1). 

The maximum length of the cranium is o m. 1 9 5 ; breadth (including a thin layer of 
hair, — see pi. XLIV), 0 m. 1 86 mill.; minimal frontal breadth, 0 m. 091 mill.; 
auricular height, 0 m. 121 mill. ; circumference (inclusive of a thin layer of hair), 
0 m. 5 2 6 mill.; total facial height, 0 m. 1 3 6 mill. ; upper facial height, 0 m. 0 8 0 mill.; 
nasal height, 0 m. 061 mill.; nasal breadth, o m. 029 mill.; bizygomatic breadth, 
0 m. i 32 mill.; bigonial breadth, 0 m. 097 mill.; right orbit, 0 m. oh 2 mill. 
X 0 m. o 38 mill.; left orbit, 0 m. oh 2 mill. X o m. o 36 mill.; right palpebral 
cleft, 0 m. o 32 mill, long, eyelids 3 millimetres apart : left palpebral cleft, 
0 m. o33 mill, long, eyelids, 7 millimetres apart; and interorbital breadth, 
o m. 021 mill. 

The temples and the back of the head are covered with fine silky hair, about 0 m. 0 6 0 mill, 
long, which originally must have been quite white, but now is yellow. The upper 
part of the scalp was quite bald, although there are still scanty hairs on the frontal 
region. Amongst them are some « blackheads due to the plugging of the orifices of 
sluggish sebaceous glands, such as one frequently sees in old men. The superficial 
temporal arteries are very prominent and tortuous and there can be no doubt that 
their walls are calcareous (pi. XLIII and XLIV). On the vertex (pi. XLIII, fig. 2), 
near the extremity of the greatly enlarged anterior branch of the right superficial 
temporal artery, there are curious markings upon the bald scalp. There is a well- 
marked white line, running in the mesial sagittal plane, and a fainter transverse 
mark , forming a pattern which in some lights looks like a cross. Between this and 
the prominent artery there is a crescentic mark. Whether these marks are painted on 



the scalp, or only scratched, and whether they are intentional or only accidental 
are questions which I am unable to answer. 

Ramses II had a low sloping forehead (pi. XLIV) and moderately prominent super- 
ciliary eminences. The eyebrow (scanty grey hairs about 6 millimetres long) is pre- 
served only on the right side. Traces of a layer of dark brown or black paint still 
persist on the superciliary ridges. The skin of the forehead is of a light yellow 
colour, thickly spotted with reddish brown patches. This mummy reveals a distinct 
advance in the technique of the embalmer’s art — for the first time it became 
possible to preserve the skin without the dark brown or black discolouration that 
occurred invariably in earlier attempts at mummification. It is true that in some 
cases, Rai, Amenothes II, Thoutmosis IV, luiya and Thouiyou a only a moderately 
dark brown tint was given to the skin ; but from the time of Ramses II onward a 
much more uniformly light colour was attainable. 

The most outstanding feature of Ramses II nd '* long narrow ovoid (or perhaps ellipsoid 
in life) face is the large, narrow, prominent nose. The mesial suture between the 
nasal bones is o m. o 2 9 mill, long ; and its lower (anterior) extremity is 0 m. 0 2 5 mill, 
in front of the inner margin of the orbit. The soft parts of the nose have been care- 
fully moulded, each nostril having been stuffed with resin, which, in addition to 
being part of the antiseptic toilet of the face, helped to preserve the form of the nose. 

In its present condition the upper lip is exceptionally long , the distance from the lateral 
nasal cartilage to the edge of the lip being 0 m. 028 mill. The lip is thickly studded 
with white hairs varying in length from 1 to 3 millimetres. There are also a few 
scattered hairs around the angles of the mouth and on the lower lip and chin; hut 
the masseteric regions appear to be wholly devoid of hair. There is a thick patch of 
about thirty hairs on the edge of the jaw about 3 centimetres to the left of the middle 
line; and the whole submaxillary region is studded with sparsely scattered hairs. 

The lips are slightly separated and the mouth appears as a transverse fusiform slit , 
o m. o 85 mill, long (measured around the arc). The opening was filled with a dark 
brown resinous paste, some of which was removed in 1886, exposing parts of two 
teeth on the right side. Roth of these teeth have been broken recently (? when the 
resin was being removed). There is a gap between the teeth , suggesting that the first 
bicuspid tooth had been lost. The teeth are clean and in an excellent state of pre- 
servation : they were only slightly worn. It is a curious problem to determine why 
this exceedingly old man should have healthy and only slightly worn teeth , whereas 
his younger predecessor Amenothes III was the victim of severe dental caries and 
alveolar abscesses and had much worn teeth. The difficulty of explaining Ramses 
immunity from these dental troubles is increased by the fact that the vast majority 

" (over 90 0/0) of the aristocracy of Memphis in the times of the Pyramid-builders 
suffered severely from tooth-affections. 

The ears had been smeared with a thick layer of resinous paste. Roth lobules (now 
broken) had been pierced. A bunch of long grey hairs projects from each meatus. 

Although the skin of the face is shrunken and parchment-like its form is fairly well 
reserved : but in the case of the neck it clings around the vertebrae and larynx , 



forming an irregular column, only o m. 1 9 5 mill, in circumference, with little 
resemblance to the form it had in life , even in an extremely emaciated body. Many 
details of the transverse processes and spines of the vertebrae are reproduced in the 
form of the skin; and in front the thyroid cartilage and the hyoid bone are excep- 
tionally prominent. 

The great part of the body is still enclosed in a hard shield of linen impregnated with 
resinous material. A piece of this carapace with the skin and part of the sternum had 
been broken off the upper part of the thorax. On raking this I was very much sur- 
prised to find that, in spite of the great age to which Ramses had attained, the 
manubrium sterni was not ankylosed to the gladiolus, and the ossified 2 nd costal 
cartilages still articulated by joints with the sternum. 

The scale of an onion was found adhering to the resin in the neighbourhood of the left 
axilla. This is of some interest, for in the succeeding three dynasties onions were 
used freely in the process of embalming, whether as deodorants or antiseptics, or 
for some unknown symbolic reason must remain a matter of conjecture. But even in 
the present day the modern Egyptians, and especially the Copts, attribute many 
virtues to the onion. 

The embalming-wound (pi. XLII) placed in front of the left flank, is a large elliptical 
gaping wound, o m. 1 65 mill, long and 0 m. o55 mill, broad. It begins above the 
middle of Poupart’s ligament, 0 m. o33 mill, below the level of the anterior 
superior spine of the ilium, and passes vertically upward to a point at the anterior 
extremity of the 9 th rib. Its mesial edge is 0 m. o63 mill, from the mesial plane. 
Its margins are thickly smeared with a paste of reddish resin. 

The position of the embalming-wound in thus different from those distinctive of both 
the early (high) and late (low) XVIII th Dynasty. The altered site is a development 
of the latter (or low) position ; but in order to afford more room for the manipulations 
inside the body the low incision has been prolonged upward so as secondarily to 
occupy the high (early XVIII th ) position, but slightly further forward than was 
customary at the beginning of the XVIII th Dynasty (compare Diagram 3, p. 34). 

The skin of the hips and buttocks is thrown into a series of longitudinal folds. 

, The legs are still encrusted , in the greater part of their extent , with a resinous mass 
6 millimetres thick. Where the limbs are exposed they seem to consist merely of a 
layer of skin closely clinging to the bones. 

A thick resinous layer fills up the concavities of the arches of the feet. 1 he toe-nails are 
long and incurved : the overgrown edge of the great-toe-nail is 4 millimetres long. 

The right hand is completely flexed but the left hand only semi-flexed. A similar state 
of affairs is found in Menephtah’s mummy, which however differs from Ramses’ in 
having the right forearm in front of the left. They resemble one another however in 
that the right hand, instead of being in front of the left shoulder, as is customary, 
is placed near the middle of the left humerus. 

> The finger nails exhibit very distinct longitudinal ridging. In the case of some of the 
finger-nails the overgrown edges are more than 5 millimetres long. Length of hand , 
from wrist along middle finger, 0 m. 222 mill. 



The skin of the face and neck was very much wrinkled, but most of the folds, especially 
the transverse wrinkles on the forehead , have been smoothed out by the embalmers. 

The eyes have been smeared with resinous material, so that it is not possible to say 
with certainly whether or not any foreign material has been introduced underneath 
the eyelids. 

In the general features of the form of cranium and face Ramses II conforms to the 
Egyptian type; but the sloping forehead, the prominent superciliary ridges, the 
narrow, high-bridged, outstanding nose, and especially the great jaw with its large 
and massive ascending ramus (pi. XLIV, fig. 1) are alien characters, to which 
I shall refer again when discussing the features of Ramses II nd * son and successor 

Professor Virchow’s measurements (op. cit., p. 77 A and 786) again present many 
discrepancies in comparison with mine. Perhaps the most surprising of his figures is 
the cranial length, which he makes 6 millimetres less than my estimation; but this 
makes the long-headed Ramses II (see pi. XLIV) appear the shortest-headed of the 
Pharaohs measured by Professor Virchow ! 

61079. The Mummy of Menephtah (pi. XLV, XLVI, XLVII, XLVIII and XLIX). 

Acting on the instructions of M. Maspero, Directeur general du Service des Anliquitk, I 
removed the wrappings from the mummy of Menephtah on July 8 lh , 1907, in the 
Cairo Museum (Annates, 1907). 

The mummy of this Pharaoh was found in 1898 by M. Loret in the tomb of Amen- 
othes II at Bib&n el Molouk, Thebes, and was brought to the Museum in Cairo 
in 1 900. In his Guide du Visiteur au Musk du Caire , M. Maspero makes the following 
remarks : tt Momie du Pharaon M^n^phtah , fils et successeur de Rams&s II, trouv^e 
dans le cercueil de Setnakhiti. M. Loret crut y reconnaitre la momie du Pharaon 
h< 5 r£tique de la XVIII" dynastie, Kbouniatonou. M. Groff affirma le premier que c’&ait 
M 4 n^phtah , et la lecture du cartouche , trace en 4 criture hidratique sur la poitrine de 
la momie , d^montra la justesse de son opinion. Le fait dtait d’autant plus int^ressant 
A constater que M 4 n£phtah serait, d’apres une tradition d’^poque alexandrine, le 
Pharaon de TExode , celui qui , dit-on , aurait pdri dans la mer Rouge, n 

Even without the evidence of the writing on the shroud many details of the process of 
mummification would have enabled us to put this mummy into the same group as 
those of Ramses II (unrolled by M. Maspero in 1886) and Siptah and Seti II 
(unrolled by me in 190 5 ) : and the physical characters of the mummy itself are 
such as to suggest a near affinity to Ramses II and Seti I‘‘. On these grounds there 
can be little doubt as to the correctness of the identification of this mummy as 

The mummy was wrapped in a sheet of fine linen, which covered the front and sides of 
the body, but not the back. It passed over the head and extended behind the neck : 
at the other end it enclosed the feet and ended behind the ankles, its two lower 
corners being drawn forward and tied in front of the ankle joint. The name was 

Catal. du Mutes n° 6lo5l. 




written in ink on this sheet in hieratic characters across the chest. It was very much 
faded , and cannot be seen in plate XLV, fig. 1 . 

This outer sheet was fixed in position by three bandages — one around the neck , one 
around the hips and the third around the knees. Each bandage passed around the 
body three times and its end was passed under the rest of the bandage. 

When the covering sheet was removed the mummy was found to have been very care- 
lessly and hastily wrapped in a series of broad bandages , which only partially covered 
the body. In many places masses of loose rags projected between the bandages and 
parts of the skin of the right side of the face were exposed to view. 

The first bandage ended on the knees and was found to invest the thighs three times 
from its beginning at the hips. Then a second bandage of a similar character was 
removed from the thighs. 

Then a very loose bandage of fringed linen , arranged in a figure-of-8 pattern around 
the neck and head, was removed. When two more short pieces of linen were removed 
from the neck and face a loose mass of rags that partially covered the face and head 
was freed and dropped off the head, leaving it completely bare. 

Then a broad bandage was removed from the chest and two very loosely arranged 
bandages of a dark , reddish-brown , fringed material were unwound from the neck 
and thorax. Then I removed a series of four broad bandages, which formed a covering 
for the body from the neck to the feet — the first one surrounding the shoulders, 
chest (including the folded arms) and abdomen, the second enclosing the thighs, 
the third the legs from knees to ankles , and the fourth the feet. 

When these were removed a great mass of loose rags of fine linen — clearly part of 
the original wrappings — was exposed and then removed. A loose reddish-brown 
bandage was then removed from the arms, which were thus almost completely 
exposed, folded x-wise in front of the chest, the right forearm being in front of the 
left. Another broad bandage was found wrapped around the abdomen and thighs : 
when this was removed, another mass of loose rags that filled up the widely-gaping 
abdominal wall was taken away. The whole body was thus exposed covered in parts 
by a thin layer of very fine linen impregnated with a bright yellow resin-like material. 
D' Charles Todd kindly examined this material , which proved to be a balsam. When 
dissolved in alcohol it has a pleasant odour like Friar’s balsam. The arms, the chest 
wall, parts of the leg and feet were enclosed in this balsam-impregnated carapace 
of fine linen. 

Not a fragment of writing, nor ornaments of any kind, were found on the mummy. 

The body is that of an old man and is 1 m. 7 1 A mill, in height. Menephtah was almost 
completely bald, only a narrow fringe of white hair (now cut so close as to be seen 
only with difficulty) remaining on the temples and occiput. A few short (about 
2 mill.) hlack hairs were found on the upper lip and scattered, closely-clipped hairs 
on the cheeks and chin. 

The general aspect of the face recalls that of Ramses II, but the form of the cranium 
and the measurements of the face much more nearly agree with those of his grand- 
father, Seti the Great. 



The process of embalming has been eminently successful, the body being well preserved 
without much distortion and without the dark discolouration seen in the mummies 
of the XVIII th Dynasty. 

The soft parts of the nose have become somewhat flattened, thus spoiling the appearance 
of the face. After the brain had been removed the emhalmers .packed the cranial 
cavity with small pieces of fine linen and some balsam; the nostrils were then plugged 
with a resinous paste, and the same material was spread over the mouth and ears. 
A semilunar patch of black paint was then applied in the situation of the eyebrows. 
Beyond this a thin layer of red paste had been applied to the face. In places this has 
now peeled off leaving white patches. The ears were pierced in life, but the holes 
are quite small. 

The embalming wound is almost vertical and situated just in front of the anterior 
superior iliac spine, which is opposite its midpoint. The wound was smeared with 
resinous paste and a plate applied to its surface, but only a part of the impression 
of the plate is now evident. 

All the viscera were removed from the body-cavity, except (possibly) the heart. I was 
able to recognise part of the heart pushed far up into the thorax, hut still attached 
to the aorta. Whether or not it was intended to leave the whole heart in the body, 
as the practice was in the time of the XXI* 1 Dynasty, I cannot say. 

The aorta was in an extreme stage of calcareous degeneration , large bone-like patches 
standing out prominently from the walls of the vessel. Mr. S. G. Shattock, the 
Curator of the Pathological Section of the Royal College of Surgeons’ Museum in 
London, has made an exhaustive study of a piece of this artery and found it to be 
affected by the ordinary senile form of calcareous degeneration. 

The body had been packed with that white cheesy material, such as I found in many 
mummies of the priests of Amen (of the XXI“ Dynasty). My colleague, Professor 
W. A. Schmidt, considered the material (in the case of the latter mummies) to 
consist of the decomposition-products of a mixture of butter and soda. 

A very curious feature of this mummy is the complete absence of the scrotum , although 
the penis was left. Midway between the root of the penis and the anus (pi. XLV, 
fig. 2 ) a transverse scar is visible. It represents the place from which the scrotal sac 
was cut away, but as it is now thickly smeared with balsam it is not possible to say 
whether it was removed during life or after death. It was certainly done before the 
process of embalming was completed because the wound is coated with balsam. The' 
fact that there is a wound suggests that Menephtah was castrated either after death 
or a within a short time of death. 

The distal portion of the penis is broken off and is missing. This, however, was done 
long after the body was mu mmifi ed , no doubt by the tomb-robbers , who inflicted 
such severe injuries on the mummy. 

The hands were placed in the position of grasping sceptres, each i5 millimetres in 
diameter, the thumbs being in the position represented in the bas-reliefs. 

The skin of the body is thickly encrusted with salt, which my colleague, M r W. M. Colies, 
has examined and found to be sodium chloride. 

9 - 



The mummy has suffered considerably at the hands of plunderers. 

The skin is shaved off the right zygomatic arch (Diagram la, a) with a sharp instrument 
and scraped off a small spot on the forehead. The left side of the chin is cut through 

to the bone (pi. XLVIII and Diagram is, b). 

There is a deep gash on the right side of the. larynx , 
breaking through the right ala of the completely- 
ossified thyroid « cartilages, and there are other 
smaller gashes in the larynx (pi. XLVIII and Dia- 
gram 1 a , c). 

A deep axe-cut over the situation of the right sterno- 
clavicular joint (cl) has broken through the chest 
wall , severing the inner ends of the clavicle , first 
rib (whose « cartilages is ossified throughout) and 
part of the sternum. This separated part of the 
chest wall, was lying free in the body-cavitv, but I 
have now replaced it (pi. XLVI and XLVIII). 

The right arm was broken midway between the elbow 
and wrist ^Diagram 1 a , e) and was held together 
only by the tendons and muscles (pi. XLVI). 

Almost the whole of the anterior abdominal wall has 
been chopped away, a few ribbons of skin being 
practically all that is left of it. The axe-cuts passed 
right through the body to the spine, large pieces 
being chopped away from the lower two lumbar 
vertebrae (Diagram 1 2 , g }. The left iliac bone and 
the pubes are smashed by transverse axe-blows (h 
and k). Part of the phallus was also broken off. 
There were also numerous small gashes in the skin 
of various parts of the body and especially on the 
legs. The toes of the left foot were broken and two 
of them were missing. 

On the right side of the back there is a large vertical 
oval opening in the body-wall o m. gB cent. X 0 m. 
o 53 mill. Its edges are eroded as though it had 
been eaten by mice , possibly attracted by the smell 
of the cheese-like material inside the body. 

On the back of the head there is a hole (37X23 millimetres in size) in the right parietal 
bone. It has been deliberately made by means of blows from some sharp instrument. 
In the case of similar openings that I found in the mummies of Seti II, Ramses IV, 
Ramses VI (and possibly that of Ramses V also) I was inclined to look upon them 
as wounds accidentally made by plunderers, who, in their haste to remove the 
wrappings from the head and neck, chopped through the bandages and so damaged 
the cranium. I still think there is a good deal to be said in favour ot this view; but 



the nature of the opening in Menephtah’s skull seems to point to the possibility of it 
having been deliberately made — perhaps for some occult reason. 

By scraping away a small piece of skin alongside this opening I was able to expose the 
upper three centimetres of this right lambdoid suture , which shows no sign of closing 

(pi. XLIX). 

The patency of this suture is unusual in a man of the age that Menephlah is supposed 
to have reached. That he was a man of great age is shown by his baldness, the 
whiteness of the little hair left, the complete ossification of the thyroid cartilage and 
especially the ossification of the cartilage of the first rib (not its sheath only). 

The calcareous patches in the aorta also point to the same conclusion. 

Only one tooth is visible — the upper, right, median incisor, the others being hidden 
by the resinous paste filling the space between the lips. 

Although the body is now reduced to little more than skin and bone, the redundancy 
of the skin of the abdomen, thighs and cheeks indicates that Menephtah was a 
somewhat corpulent old man. 

Most of the foregoing account has been published in the Annales du Service (1907); 
but there are a number of features that call for further comment. 

Seti I and Ramses II exhibit in their cranial and facial features many alien traits, 
curiously blended with Egyptian characters : but in Menephtah the foreign element 
in his composition is more obtrusively shown than it is in either his father or his 
grandfather. He has the prominent, high-bridged nose of his father, but a shorter 
and much broader cranium than either of his predecessors. 

In norma verlicalis his head is of a broad beloid form and is distinctly asymmetrical, the 
left side of the occiput being more prominent (Diagram 1 3 ). 

The cranial length is only 0 m. i 85 mill., a whole centimetre 
less than his father’s; but the breadth is o m. 1 5 o. 1 A mil- 
limetres greater than in the case of Ramses II and 7 mil- 
limetres greater than Seti I. 

The mere comparisons of lengths and breadths of the cranium 
might lead one to imagine that the feeble successors of 
Menephtah, Siphtah and Seti II, retained something sug- 
gestive of Menephlah’s cranium , for the measurements are 
respectively 0 m. 189 mill, x 0 m. 1 A 7 mill, and 0 m. 

187 mill. X 0 m. 1A1 mill.; but the breadths of the fore- 
head and face at once reveal the differences. Menephtah resembles his grand- 
father Seti I in having a wide face and forehead; minimal frontal diameter, 0 m. 
id mill. (Seti I, 0 m. 101 mill.; Ramses II, 0 m. 091 mill.; Siphtah, 
0 m. 091 mill.; and Seti II, 0 m. 097 mill.); bizygomatic diameter, 0 m. idi mill. 
(Seti I, 0 m. i 38 mill.; Ramses II, 0 m. i 3 s mill.; Siphtah, 0 m. 139 mill.; 
Seti II, 0 m. 139 mill.). Total facial height o m. 139 mill. (Seti I, 0 m. 138 mill.; 
Ramses II, 0 m. i 36 mill.; Siphtah 0 m. 137 mill.; Seti II, 0 m. i 3 o mill.). 
Estimated upper facial height, 0 m. 077 mill. (Seti I, 0 m. 080 mill.; Ramses II, 
0 m. 080 mill.; Siphtah, 0 m. 078 mill.; Seti II, 0 m. 06 5 mill.). Bigonial 



breadth, o m. 099 mill. (Seti I, 0 m. 101 mill.; Ramses II, 0 m. 097 mill.; 
Siphtah, 0 m. 100 mill.; Seti II, 0 m. 102 mill.). Circumference, o m. 53 o mill. 
Nasal height and breadth, 0 m. 060 mill. xom. o 3 a mill. (Seti I, 0 m. 060 mill. 
X 0 m. o 33 mill.; Ramses II, 0 m. 061 mill, x 0 m. 029 mill.; Siphtah, 

0 m. o6omill. xom. o 3 o mill.; and Seti II, 0 m. o 5 g mill. xom. 026 mill.). Right 
orbit, 0 m. 0A7 mill. xom. o 38 mill. : left orbit, 0 m. o 46 mill, x 0 m. 037 mill. 

In height Menephtah is intermediate between his father and grandfather, 1 m. 714 mill. 
(Seti I, 1 m. 665 mill.; Ramses II, 1 m. 733 mill.; Siphtah, 1 m. 638 mill.; 
and Seti II, 1 m. 64 0 mill.). 

61080. The Mummy of Siphtah (pi. LX, LXI, LXII and LXIII). 

This is one of the mummies found by M. Loret in the tomb of Amenothes II in 1898. 

1 began the process of unwrapping it in the Cairo Museum on August 29 th , 1 go 5 - 

After photographs had been made of the coffin (pi. LX, fig. 1), the enshrouded 

mummy (pi. LX, fig. 2), and the writing on the shroud (pi. LXI, fig. i), the unrol- 
ling of the bandages was commenced. Three days were devoted to this process. 

1. The whole body was wrapped in a large sheet of cloth, which covered the head 
and feet and the front and sides of the body, overlapping behind. It was kept in 
position by three circular bandages , one passing around the neck , a second around 
the thighs and the third around the ankles. Midway between the latter two bandages 
there was a hieratic inscription in ink on the front of the large shroud. Much of the 
ink had scaled off so that the writing has became very indistinct. 

The large investing sheet is a long narrow bandage of very fine linen, about two and 
a half times as long and broad respectively as the mummy itself. It is folded on 
itself from end to end so that the two ends, which are both tasselled, come together 
behind the ankles. This doubled sheet was wrapped around the body in the way 
already mentioned. 

2. The circular neck-bandage passed obliquely around the head and covered the face 
and then encircled the neck twice, its end being tucked under the penultimate turn. 

3 . The circular thigh-bandage invested the legs three times passing from right to left 
in front. Its end was tucked under the rest of the bandage. 

4 . The ankle-bandage is like that just described but passed around the legs five times. 

5 . After removing these wrappings the body was found to be invested by a large series 
of very irregularly-disposed bandages (pi. LXI, fig. 2). 

The forearms occupy a peculiar position, which was evident even before the outer 
shroud was removed. Both upper arms are placed vertically at the sides of the body : 
the forearms are disposed transversely in front of the thorax and epigastrium , the 
right being higher up than the left : both hands are clenched. 

The loose ends of two bandages were placed just above the right hand. One of these ( 5 ) 
passed across the chest to the left shoulder; once around the neck; once around the 
head across the face; across the chest toward the right; then around the back; then 
up in front of the left side of the chest and around the neck to end in front of the 



right side of the chest. The other (6) passed twice around the chest and then behind 
the neck to the left shoulder, thence vertically down the left arm, around the elbow 
obliquely across to the front of the pubes and right thigh, where it ended without 
being fixed in position in any way. Where this bandage (6) ended another (7) 
began; it passed around the hips (from right to left in front) and then across the 
left hand; thence obliquely to the left shoulder, across the back to the right shoul- 
der and obliquely across the front of the chest to a point underneath the left elbow : 
thence it passed around the hips where it ended by being intertwined with the end 
of the next bandage (8). This passed obliquely across the chest above the right 
hand , then transversely behind the chest and across the right elbow to the left hip, 
then behind the hips and in front of the left hand and around the right forearm to 
end on the left hand. 

A bandage (9) began on the chest and passed to the right twice (alternately) around 
the neck and chest before it ended on the right shoulder. The next bandage (10) 
began in front on the chest and passed (toward the right in front) twice around 
the shoulders. The next (1 1) passed in the same direction transversely around the 
chest to the right hand and then circularly around the chest. Its two ends were 
knotted under the left hand. N° 1 a started at the right hand (on the left elbow) and 
passed spirally around the arms and thighs as far as the knee, where it ended on 
the right side of the leg. Where it ended the next bandage 1 3 ) began and passed 
spirally down the leg and described a figure of 8 around the ankles and feet. These 
two bandages passed from right to left in front. Where the last bandage ended ano- 
ther ih) began and after forming a figure of 8 around the ankles and feet, it 
wound spirally up the leg as far as the knee, where another bandage (i 5 ) began 
and wound around the knees (from left to right in front) and then spirally around 
the left leg only. When his wrapping was removed the left foot, distorted in the 
manner know as talipes equino-varus, was exposed in its original wrappings. Ano- 
ther bandage (16) began between the forearms and, passing from right to left in 
front, wound around the body as far as the knees. 

The right forearm had been broken , presumably by plunderers , long after mummifi- 
cation, and when the priests rewrapped the body, the forearm was fixed with splints. 
A ragged piece of linen (17) was wrapped around these splints (diagram 1 h and 

pi. LXII). 

All of the bandages enumerated above were put on the mummy by the priests of a later 
dynasty, after the mummy had been plundered. When these eighteen strips of linen 
had been removed the mummy itself was exposed partly wrapped in the torn frag- 
ments of its original bandages. 

Each foot was partially wrapped in a large quantity of soft muslin of exceedingly fine 
texture, and the surface of this covering wars smeared with a thick layer of resinous 

A considerable quantity of similar bandage was wound around the left thigh and con- 
nected by numerous 8-shaped loops across the perineum to the right leg. After 
removing this the selvedged end of a sheet of linen (o m. 3 1 cent, wide) was found 



wrapped around the left thigh and the left side of the body, its ragged torn end 
being alongside the shoulders. It was inscribed with a series of lines of red paint. 
After removing a small spiral bandage from the left thigh a similar bandage was 
found : it was inscribed with hieroglyphic signs in black and lines in red (pi. LXIII, 
fig. 1 ), It was arranged like the other painted sheet just mentioned. Similar bandages 
and painted sheets of linen were found on the right thigh and side of the body. 

Each arm was wrapped in a large mass of bandages of exquisitely fine linen smeared 
on its surface with a layer of resinous paste. 

Lying on the front of the chest there was a mass of torn bandages with strips passing 
over the shoulders. The whole mass was thickly plastered with resinous paste, in 
which the impression of part of the usual pectoral ornament could be plainly seen. 
In front of the right elbow there was a cake of resin (adherent to the bandages) 
in which there was a vertical groove o m. o 1 5 mill, in diameter lined with gold 

Diagram 1 h. 

foil (Diagram 1 h ). It was evidently the 
impression of a gilded staff originally pla- 
ced in the left hand of the mummy. 

The plunderers broke off the right hand at 
the wrist-joint. When the mummy was being 
rewrapped one third of a piece of a ragged 
bandage, o m. 99 cent, by 0 m. 92 cent., 
was wrapped around the separated hand 
leaving the other two-thirds free : this was 
split into two bands, one of which was 
wound around the forearm and a ventral 

splint — - a rough piece of wood 0 m. 1 5 cent, long — and the other encircled 
the forearm and the dorsal splint — a rough piece of coffin om. a5 cent. long. In 
this way the hand was fixed to the forearm ; and to render it more secure another 
bandage was wound around both splints and the hand and forearm. Two strips of 
bandage, each 0 m. i3a mill, long — one of them i.5 cm. and the other 3.3 cm. 
wide with a fringe of strings 8.5 cm. long on each — were intertwined to form 
one cord, which was wound spirally round the two splints, beginning at the hand. 
At the other end of the splints the two strips were separated and after being passed 
in opposite directions around the forearm, were tied together. 

The mummy is that of a young man 1 m. 638 mill, in height, with a thick crop of 
short, reddish brown, curly hair. When the ringlets are unrolled the hair is 0 m. 
o36 mill, long. 

The cheeks were very carefully packed with long, narrow strips of very fine muslin. 
The face was entirely hidden by a thick mass of resin firmly adherent to the skin 
and to the cloth covering it. Some of this I removed to expose the features, of 
the face. 

The right cheek and the front teeth had been badly broken by a blow long after the 
embalming process; and at the same time the lips and the whole right side of the 
cheek down to the chin had been broken away. This was done before the mummy 



was rewrapped, because the missing parts were not in the bandages. The ears were 
broken off. 

The plunderers, who had done this damage to the face, also broke off the right arm 
at the shoulder and the right hand from the forearm. 

In hacking through the bandages on the legs they had also shaved the skin off two 
spots on the outer side of the left knee. 

They had also broken through the body wall, making an irregular hole o m. i 5 cent, 
long above the umbilicus. 

The abdomen was packed with lichen , and the embalming-incision was made along-side 
Pouparl’s ligament and was sewn up with narrow strips of linen. 

Siphtah was 1 m. 638 mill, in height. 

His cranium is of the form that Sergi calls r pentagonoid v (diagram 
i 5 ) : it is o m. 189 mill, long and 0 m. 1 4 7 mill. broad : mini- 
mal frontal diameter, 0 m. 09 h mill.: circumference, 0 m. 

53 o mill. : bizygomatic breadth, o m. 199 mill. : bigonial 
breadth, o m. 100 mill.; total facial height, o m. 197 mill.; 
upper facial height, 0 m. 078 mill. Diagram i 5 

The nose is 0 m. 060 mill, in height and 0 m. o 3 o mill, broad. It has 

a moderately high bridge : the cartilaginous part has been flattened and distorted by 
the bandages, but there can be no doubt that it was small, narrow, aquiline and 
graceful in orm. Across the forehead extends a broad (vertical measurement 16 
millimetres), crescentic band of black paint, the lateral extremities of which are 
situated just above the external canthi. In the mummy of Siphtah several innova- 
tions in the technique of embalming make their appearance. The cheeks are filled 
out with linen packing and the body cavity is stuffed with dried lichen. 

The embalming wound was sewn up. Although this method of dealing with it is not 
new, since I have seen it in the XVIII th Dynasty mummy of Thuaa, it now became 
the custom and apparently remained so until the death of Ramses IV. 

61081. The Mummy of Seti II (pi. LX1V, LXV and LXVI). 

This mummy is one of those found in 1898 by M. Loret in the tomb of Amenothes II 
in the Biban el Molouk. I began unrolling the bandages of this mummy in the Cairo 
Museum on September 3 ' d , igo 5 , and devoted several days to the process. At 
various times I was assisted by Mr. J. E. Quibell, Mr. Percy E. Newberry and 
Professor A. R. Ferguson; and M. Emil Brugsch pacha was present throughout the 
work of unwrapping. 

Seti II was a young or middle-aged man, 1 m. 6A0 mill, in height. Both Siphtah and 
Seti II were thus decidedly smaller in stature than the three, great, old men who 
preceeded them in the XIX th Dynasty. Neither of them exhibits any trace of that decision 
and strength, which are so strongly imprinted on the faces of Seti I“, Ramses II 
and Menephtah. 

The body had been most carefully and successfully mummified, and wrapped in 

Catal. du Mutee, n° 6io5i. 



exceptionally fine, gauzy muslin of very soft texture. Successive layers of bandage 
were smeared with resinous paste, and in some places quite a thick layer of this 
material was found; it exhibited on its surface the imprints of the skin patterns of 
the fingers of the man who had moulded it into shape. Embedded in this resin I 
found around each leg a piece of string (on which a-series of blue-glaze «eyes», of 
the usual pattern, were threaded) wound spirally around the leg from ankle to knee. 
At each end of the string there was a blue-glaze scarab. In front of the right knee , 
lying in the groove between the patella and tibia , there were three small sphinxes 
threaded on strings (Diagrams 17 and 18). 

The mummy had suffered considerably at the hands of its plunderers. The head was 
broken off from the body, carrying with it the axis and atlas : the neck was broken 
at the cervico-thoracic junction. 

Both arms were separated from the body and both forearms from the upper arms. The 
right forearm and hand were missing, and also the index, ring and little fingers (in 
part) of the left hand. The arms had originally been placed in the folded position 
over the chest and the left hand (and possibly the right also, if we can judge from 
the analogy of other royal mummies) was in the position of grasping a sceptre. 

A large part of the anterior wall of the body was broken away; and that this was done 
before the rewrapping is clearly shown by the fact that part of the wall of the chest 
was found among the superficial bandages , as though it had been forgotten and had 
been put in just before the wrapping-process was completed. 

The plunderers, when cutting through the original wrappings with some sharp instru- 
ment (? knife or perhaps axe), had gashed the skin in various parts of the body. The 
embalming wound resembles that of Siphtah in position and the manner in which it 
was treated. 

The body had been packed with pieces of linen soaked in a solution of resin, which set 
into a stone-like mass filling the whole cavity. 

The features were well-preserved and were not distorted, but the face is thickly 
encrusted with resinous paste. The scalp was not treated in this manner, so that it 
is possible to see that it was studded with short, closely-clipped, dark brown hair. 

On the vertex of the skull, to the left of the sagittal suture, there is an irregular hole 
(0 m. o 5 o mill. xom. oi 5 mill.) in the left parietal bone. The skin at its edge is 
cut into ribbons showing that the damage was done by numerous blows with some 
sharp instrument. It was certainly done after mummification. 

Both ears were pierced. 

Amongst the wrappings there was an unusually large quantity of the materials originally 
used for this purpose when the body was embalmed. There were fragments of several 
garments and two perfectly intact shirts of very fine muslin. Each of these shirts was 
made from a strip of fine linen 1 m. a 5 cent, wide and 3 m. 5 A cent, long, folded 
lengthways on itself, and its edges sewn together except in the upper 0 m. 3 1 cent, 
of its extent. This was left unstitched and was hemmed to form an arm-hole on each 
side. On the front of the square shirt thus made a circular neck-hole was cut near 
the upper edge and hemmed around. Its circumference is 0 m. 4 o cent. In the 



middle line in front a slit o m. 090 mill, long was cut from this neck-hole vertically 
downward and hemmed like the rest. 

In the lower (right-hand in one, left hand in the other) corner of the front of the shirt 
there was embroidered in red and blue thread a vertical cartouche and name, which 
Brugsch Pasha tells me is that of Menephtah. Alongside this (nearer the edge) in 
one of the shirts is a long vertically-placed hieratic inscription in ink : and on the 
left corner, another, shorter, badly-corroded inscription (Diagram 16). 

[ 1 regret that it is not possible to give a fuller description of these shirts and of the 
writing upon them. At the time when I unwrapped this mummy the shirts were 
handed over to the Conservator of the Museum, but when I came to write this 
Catalogue they were not to be found in the Museum]. 

The mummy was wrapped in a large shroud investing the whole body (pi. LXIV, fig. 1). 
Its tasselled ends were found behind 

the feet tied in a knot. It was composed 
of fine linen (warp 1 3 , woof a 3 to the 
centimetre) with both margins selved- 
ged and one end string-fringed. It 
measured 3 m. i 4 cent, x 0 m. 85 
cent. It was very much torn and had 
been repaired in many places. 

There was a faint traces of the name 
written (in ink) in hieratic on the front 
of this sheet of linen. 

This sheet was held in position by four 
strips of linen wrapped in a circular 
manner around the mummy — neck , 
hips, thighs and ankles respectively — 
and knotted behind. 

Diagram 16. 

When these five pieces of linen — the shroud and the four circular bandages — were 
removed, I found a loose piece of very fine, gauzy muslin (6) placed in front of the 
body. Then beginning to unroll the bandages I found the end of the first (7) in 
front of the right elbow and it was unwound from the body, around which it passed 
in a circular manner twice. 

Bandage number 8 had been applied as a spiral beginning at the hips and ending on 
the ankles. It consisted of a piece of loose-textured linen 3 m. 7 5 cent, x o m. 3 3 cent. , 
with string-fringe at both ends. It had 8 threads to the centimetre warp and 1 6 
woof. Then we found a pad (9) on the right hip, consisting of three ragged pieces 
of very fine linen (warp 2 3 woof 5 i), one of them smeared with resin-paste. 
Undoubtedly all three were parts of the original wrappings of Seti II. 

Bandage number 10 was a sheet 3 m. 45 cent, x 0 m. 17 cent., with one end and 
one edge selvedged and the other end converted into string tassels o m. 01 5 mill, 
long, each string consisting of two strings intertwined and knotted at the end — 
texture of linen, i 4 warp and 20 woof to the centimetre. This bandage was applied 




as a figure of 8 around the feet and ankles and then spirally around the legs up to 
the knees. 

Bandage 1 1, a long ragged strip 3 m. 45 cent, x o m. 16 cent, selvedged on one side 

— texture like n° i o — was put on spirally around the legs from the knees to the 

Bandage 12, a piece of the same sheet as n 0 ' 10 and 11, 0 m. 017 mill, wide, was 
put on spirally around the legs from the knees to the hips. 

N® 1 3 is a pad placed in front of the thighs. 

N° ik consisted of two pieces of bandage, one (a) 3 m. 60 cent, x 0 m. 19 cent, 
and texture 10 x 20 and the other ( b ) 2 m. o 5 cent, x 0 m. 19 cent, and texture 
i 5 xa 4 . One end of a had been torn and darned with a rope-like seam. 

It was applied in a spiral course completely covering the legs from the ankles to the 
thighs and then down again as far as the knees. 

N° i 5 is a sheet 3 m. 60 cent, x 0 m. 19 cent, with one end selvedged — texture : 
warp 1 3 , woof 1 8 to the centimetre. It was applied circularly around the abdomen 
and thorax. 

Underneath this bandage a large piece of the wall of the chest was found lying loose 
on the surface of the deeper bandages. 

N® 1 6 consists of a pad of linen placed on the right side of the abdomen. It includes five 
pieces of material : (a) a sheet of very fine, gauzy muslin 1 m. 73 cent, x 0 m. 20 cent. 

— one end tasselled. At the attachment of the strings of the tassel there are six 
transverse string-like hands in the cloth, of which the middle two are green (pro- 
bably blue originally). The threads are too fine and irregular to count. Three of the 
rest are scraps of similar, though not identical, material; and the fifth (e) is a 
closely-woven sheet t m. A 7 cent, x 0 m. 22 cent, of the texture, warp 20 woof 37 
to the centimetre. 

N° 17 is a very ragged bandage 3 m. 5 o cent, x 0 m. 21 cent, on end and edge 
selvedged and the other end string-fringed like n° 1 6 — texture 20 x 21. 

It was applied to the right side of the head , then in a series of spirals around the neck 
and thorax. 

N° 1 8 is a mass of rags placed in front of the neck, held in position by n° 17. 

N® 19 is a very ragged bandage (3 m. 76 cent, x 0 m. 16 cent.) of close textured cloth 
(warp ii woof 23 ), both ends converted into string-fringe. It was put on in a 
circular manner around the hips, abdomen and thorax. 

N® 20 is a bandage (3 m. 56 cent, x 0 m. 27 cent.) of fine, regular thread (i 3 x 2 4 ), 
with one end selvedged. It was applied in a circular manner once around the 
abdomen, then obliquely from the left elbow to the right shoulder in front, then 
behind the back to the left shoulder and obliquely across the body to the right hip. 

N° 2 1 is a bandage (3 m. 11 cent, x 0 m. 1 5 cent.) composed of material like n° 20, 
but with strings-tassels like n° 16. It was applied in a circular manner around the 
chest and shoulders. 

N® 2 2 is a large mass of loose rags placed in front of the chest , parts of shirts of very 
fine linen. 



N" 9 3 is a bandage 3 m. 48 cent, x o m. 19 cent.) of very regular even texture 
(warp 16 woof 9 5 ), with lorn ends and sides. It was applied circularly around 
shoulders, neck, head, neck and thus back to the shoulders. 

The left forearm was then exposed lying separate on the left side of the abdomen , the 
hand being downwards towards the pubes and the upper ends of the radius and ulna 
over the lower left ribs. The right forearm is missing. The left upper arm could not 
be found at this stage, but it came to light later on, lying between the thighs. 

N° 94 . Two pieces of coarse cloth (warp 19 woof 17), each of them 0 m. 53 cent. 
X 0 m. 60 cent, sewn together along the two shorter borders to form an open tube. 
It was placed around the head and neck. 

N° 95 is a fine bandage (3 m. 5 o cent, x o m. 18 cent.) with one end fringed, the 
other selvedged — texture i 5 x 3 4 . Beginning on the top of the head it was 
applied in the following manner : — it was brought down through the right armpit 
across the back into the left armpit, thence across the top of the head in a transverse 
direction, being split to enable it to hold more firmly on the arched vertex of the 
skull •: then it passed through the right armpit (forwards) across the front of the 
chest to the left armpit, thence vertically upward behind and then above the head 
(where it is again split) and finally downward into the right armpit. 

The. object of this bandage is probably twofold : — to fix the head more firmly on the 
body; and to bridge over the gap between the head and the body and facilitate the 
attainment of the customary form of the wrapped mummy. 

N° 96 is a small sheet of fine linen (o m. 75 cent, x 0 m. 69 cent.) placed in front of 
the thighs — texture , 9 9 x 3 1 . 

When these twenty six bandages were removed a large mass of pieces of exquisitely fine 
muslin many pieces with elaborately fringed and coloured — red and blue — 
borders) and clothes was exposed loosely thrown around the body in the most 
irregular and disordered manner (pi. LXIV, fig. 9). In addition to the two shirts, 
to which I have already referred earlier in this account, there was found in contact 
with the body a large loose mass which consisted of the original wrappings of the 
thorax and abdomen of the mummy. It consisted of a large sheet of very fine, soft 
muslin composed of particularly delicate threads, of which there were 46 to the 
centimetre in the warp and 9 4 in the woof. It was folded on itself longitudinally and 
also transversely. As the lower part of the sheet is destroyed its length cannot be 
estimated. It is 0 m. 9 5 cent, wide and 0 m. 35 cent, of this breadth is folded 
over. Outside this fine muslin there was a sheet of coarser, very close-textured linen 
(warp 18 woof 3 o); and on the surface of this there was a layer of resin -paste 
0 m. 001 mill, thick. On the surface of this there was originally a large series of 
bandages of soft muslin, 0 m. o 4 g mill, wide, hut so puckered and folded (longi- 
tudinally) as to be only o m. o 5 cent, wide, when not flattened out. Each leg had 
been wrapped in large quantities of very fine muslin bandages. When the leg was 
completely covered, a layer of resinous paste 0 m. 009 mill, thick was spread over 
the whole surface. : another series of bandages was then applied and another layer 
of paste and so on until eight layers of alternate muslin and resinous paste (four of 



each) were put on. The arms were treated in a similar manner and every finger and 
toe was wrapped separately. 

The plunderers made large gashes through this eight-fold carapace on both sides of 

the right knee , in front of the right 
tibia near the ankle , on the outer 
side of the left ankle and in both 
thighs. By means of these openings 
they obtained a number of small 
charms, but at the same time they 
left some of these objects, which I 
found firmly embedded in the re- 
sinous capsule which enclosed the 
two legs. 

These consist of portions of long 
strings of blue-glaze eye- amulets 
and beads on both legs and three 
small human-headed sphinxes from 
the front of the right knee. These 
objects were firmly embedded in 
the resinous paste and it was im- 
possible to expose them in such a 
manner as to photograph them in 
silu. In lieu of this I have carefully 
determined the position of each ob- 
ject in turn and constructed the two 
accompanying plans, drawn to sca- 
le. In diagram 1 7 the outlines of 
the right knee-cap (patella) and the 
upper ends of the tibia and fibula 
are indicated, as seen from the 
front. Each of the three sphinxes 
(A, B and C) was mounted on its 
own string and the ends of the 
strings were knotted behind the 



Diagram 17. A diagram, accurately drawn to scale, to illus- 
trate the arrangement of the objects found around the right 
knee and leg. The outlines of part of the skeleton are seen. 

Above the knee-cap (patella) are seen three sphinxes (A, B 
and C) each threaded on its own string. Lower down are 
seen two ropes, the upper are joined to a string hearing 
six blue-glaze neyesn. 

The group of ropes and the string of heads at D are on the 
back of the leg and are seen from in front. The bones are 
not represented there, so as to show these ropes. The 
r faces of one of the three «eyesi> was applied to the skin : 
the plain surface of the other two is seen. 

knee. One of them (G) is made of frit with a bright green glaze and the other two 
are made of Amazonite. This determination of materials is M. Maspero’s. 

On each leg there were portions of a long rope, formed by intertwining two strips (each 
0 m. o 3 cent, wide) of longitudinally rolled bandage — each roll being 2.5 mill, 
in diameter and the rope 0 m. 00 5 mill. Although only a few torn fragments have 
been left by the plunderers, yet their united length on the right leg is 0 m. 62 cent, 
and even more on the left. So that originally there must have been quite a long 
rope wound around the leg between the ankle and the knee. 

At one end the rope is finished off in a conical form (Diagrams 1 7 and 1 8), the extremity 



of one of the bandages being wrapped around it and tied in position. From the other 
end a string (on which beads and « sacred eyes» are threaded) emerges from the rope. 
One of the two bandages from which the rope is formed is wrapped around the string 
for a distance of more than three centimetres. The objects threaded on the string 
are not arranged in the same manner on the two sides. On the right leg the series 
begins with three cylindrical, blue-glaze beads (each 3 millimetres long), then a 
blue-glaze «eye», then three beads and so on to the end. On the left leg the series 
commences with three smaller beads, then a small blue-glaze scarab ( Diagram 1 8, S) , 

Diagram t8. The ropes removed from the left leg spread out it one plane. M represents the mesial line in 
front of the leg. S is a scarab (plain face) with the beetle-surface toward the skin. S' is another scarab 
turned sideways, a i centimetres (7 + i4) of the rope were left out of the drawing at the lower right hand 
corner for want of room. 

then three small beads, then an «eye» and the series of alternate groups of three small 
beads and «eyes» until the other end is reached. There (Diagram 18, S') we find 
another scarab, but no small beads beyond it. Either in the middle of this siring or 
perhaps on a second string we find long, cylindrical, blue-glaze beads instead of the 
three small beads (diagram 1 8 ). 

The features of the face have been well preserved without much distortion ; but the face 
(pi. LXVI) is thickly encrusted with resinous material as far up as a line crossing 
the frontal eminences and running obliquely downward on each side to the upper 
margin of the external ear. Unlike the case of Siphtah’s mummy where the features 
were completely hidden and disguised by the paste covering it, the contour of 
Seti II” d ’ , face is quite evident, and its life-like appearance is enhanced by the fact that 
the resin has cracked along the lines of the palpebral clefts. 

There is little resemblance to the other XIX th Dynasty Pharaohs in Seti II nd * features, 



but they recall in a striking manner those of the XVIII* 1 * Dynasty. The small, narrow, 
high-bridged aquiline nose is not unlike that of Amenothes II and Thoutmosis IV. 
The marked projection of the upper teeth and the hanging lower jaw are other 
points of resemblance to the royal family of the preceding dynasty, and of contrast 
to the orthognathous heavy-jawed XIX th Dynasty rulers. 

In the intervals where the resin has peeled off the lips, chin and cheeks no trace of 
hair is visible except on the right edge of the mandible, where I was able to detect 
(with the aid of a lens) eight hairs a little more than one millimetre long. 

The scalp is studded with closely-clipped (less than 3 millimetres long), dark brown, 
straight hair. 

Although the skin of the cheeks , so far as it is visible , is quite smooth and unwrinkled , 
there are several folds of skin below each ear parallel to the posterior margin of the 

The cranium is a small pentagonoid (Diagram 1 9) 0 m. 1 8 7 mill. long and 0 m. 1 h 1 mill. 

broad : the minimal frontal breadth is 0 m. 097 mill.; and 
the circumference, 0 m. 5 20 mill. 

There is marked flattening of the left side of the chest. 

The ensiform cartilage is ossified and completely ankylosed to the 
mesosternum. This suggests that Seti II must have been a middle- 
aged man. 

The embalming incision (now in great part destroyed, as the result 
of the destructive work of the tomb-robbers) was situated along- 
side the outer half of the left Poupart’s ligament and on the inner 
side of the iliac crest. It had been sewn up with a narrow strip of bandage as in the 
case of Siphtah’s mummy. 

The whole scrotum and the greater part of the penis have been broken off and lost. 
This was not done by the embalmers , but is one of the many injuries inflicted upon 
this body by the tomb-robbers. The penis was hanging vertically and was bandaged. 
The left side of the pubes and the skin covering it were knocked off and lost. The 
anus is plastered over with resinous material. 

The undue prominence of the head of the astragalus and the antero-lateral edges of 
the caleaneum seems to indicate that the feet were forcibly bent straight after the 
tissues had become softened. This must not he confused with the condition of talipes 
equino-varus seen in Siphtah, nor does it justify the statements of certain writers 
that the embalmers deliberately and of set purpose dislocated the feet of mummies, 
"to prevent them from walkings. There is no dislocation, in the proper sense of the 
term ; and what displacement there is has obviously been produced simply by forcing 
the feet into the conventional mummy-position. 

That this explanation is the true one is shown by the fact that there is an analogous 
displacement of the carpus. The hand and wrist are twisted much further forward 
(in relation to the carpal extremity of the radius) than is possible naturally in the 
living body. 

The right forearm and hand are missing. When I restored the fragments of the left 



arm to the positions they had occupied when the body was m ummifi ed , the hand 
came to lie in front of the right shoulder. It was bent back 45 ° from the line of the 
forearm. The thumb was placed in close approximation to the index and fully 
extended : but the four fingers were flexed at the metacarpo-phalangeal and proximal 
interphalangeal joints and extended at the distal interphalangeal joints. 

The following measurements will enable the reader to reconstruct from plate XLV the 
exact proportions of the body and compare them with the various canons : 

Metre mill. 

Height i 64 o 

Height of suprasternal notch l 3 o 4 

Height of upper margin of the symphysis pubis o 85 o 

Height of nasal spine above the symphysis puhis o 68o 

Left tibia (with internal malleolus) o 370 

Left tibia — estimated length (without malleolus) o 355 

Height of upper border of the right great trochanter above the 

external condyle of the femur o 427 

Bitrochanteric breadth '. . . o 273 

Bi-iliac breadth o a 56 

Distance between anterior iliac spines o 198 

Maximum breadth of chest o 2 45 

Biacromial breadth , o 3 a 5 

Height, chin to vertex o 19a 

Height, chin to glabella o i 3 o 

Height, upper lip to glabella o 087 

Height, nasal spine to glabella o o 65 

61082. Mummy of an unknown woman «D» found in the coffin -lid of 
Setnakhiti (pi. LXVII and XLVIII). 

This is one of the mummies found by M. Loret in the tomb of Amenothes II in 1898. 
It was lying in a broken coffin-lid bearing the name Setnakhiti and was supposed 
to be the mummy of that king, until the year 1905, when I removed the wrappings 
(July 5 th ) and found it to be the body of a woman. 

In the process of unwrapping the mummy I was assisted by M. Daressy and 
Mr. Howard Carter. 

The condition in which the mummy was found is shown in plate LXVII , fig. 1 . 

The roughly applied bandages had been disturbed (by ancient tomb-robbers) in the 
front of the body and on the head; and through the wrappings a bunch of curls 
projected from the left side of the head (compare figs. 1 and 2, pi. LXVII). 

The bandages had been applied so carelessly that there is no need for a detailed account 
of their arrangement. 

A large quantity of bandage (0 m. 180 mill, wide) was unrolled from the legs and 
body. The inner sides of the thighs were padded with large quantities of coarse 
cloth of different textures. Underneath these there were spirally-wound bandages on 
each leg, starting at the thigh on the left leg, and the ankle on the right. Under 

Catal . du Mush, n° 6io5i. 




these a shirt had been placed in front each leg; and underneath there was a second 
shirt, one of the ends of which was on the side of the thigh : it was brought round 
the foot and up on the other side of the leg. 

On the sole of each foot there was a large mass, wrapped in coarse cloth, and fixed in 
position by bandages of the leg which passed around it. The parcel on the right 
foot contained a mass of epidermis mixed with large quantities of natron : that on 
the left portions of viscera with similar preservative material. The epidermis had 
been removed from the soles of the feet for the most part and the small remaining 
fragment had a clean-cut edge. 

After removing a series of bandages from the head , some of which had been wound in 
a circular manner and others forming a figure-of-8 around the head and neck, the 
hair was found to be enclosed in cloths tied like those of modern Egyptian girls. A 
piece of linen about the size of an ordinary handkerchief was placed upon the head 
and its lateral corners brought round to the forehead and tied in a knot. 

Neither the fingers nor the toes were wrapped separately. 

The body is 1 m. 58 g mill. high. The head is o m. 1 go mill, long and o m. i 48 mill, 
broad — exceptionally large figures for a woman — and its shape was beloid. The 
arms were placed vertically at the sides , the hands being upon the lateral surfaces 
of the thighs. 

The mummy had escaped all damage at the hands of tomb-robbers, excepting that a 
large rounded hole had been made through the brittle anterior abdominal wall in 
the epigastrium (pi. LXVII, fig. 2). 

The second and third toes of the left foot were bent sharply upward ; but this had been 
done when the body was still plastic. 

The right foot is o m. 211 mill, long and 0 m. o 58 mill, broad. 

The oblique length of each femur is estimated at about 0 m. li 36 mill.; the axial 
length of the tibia at 0 m. 336 mill.; the oblique length of the humerus at 0 m. 
ag 5 mill.; and the axial length of the radius, 0 m. a 3 o mill. 

The left hand is 0 m. 170 mill. long. The breadth across the iliac crests is 0 m. 
2 45 mill. 

The body is that of an extremely emaciated woman with apparently complete atrophy 
(? senile) of the breasts. Her hair is well preserved and has been made into a series 
of sharply-rolled curls , of the variety distinguished by modern ladies by the name 
« Empire » (pi. LXVII). She had a prominent, narrow, high-bridged, «Ramesside» 
nose; but the pressure of the bandages has distorted the cartilaginous part and 
marred its beauty. She had a straight line, of brow, and a long hanging jaw. The 
packing of the mouth has given the lips a pouting expression and further disturbed 
the natural profile of the face. 

There is a large widely-gaping elliptical embalming-wound (pi. LXVII, fig. 2) placed 
obliquely, with its long axis parallel to Poupart’s ligament. It extends as far as the 
symphysis pubis below (internally) and beyond the anterior superior spine of the 
ilium above (externally). A large pad of linen had been pushed against the perineal 
region — not the perineum proper, so much as the neighbourhood of the obturator 



foramina — producing large depressions (pi. LXVII, fig. a) at the inner side of 
each femoral neck. 

There was no sign of any writing or any inscription that might indicate the identity of 
this woman. 

ThtT complete absence of any attempt at packing the limbs or trunk , as well as the 
situation of the embalming wound, demonstrate that the body was mummified before 
the beginning of the XXl“ Dynasty. 

The texture of the tissues, the light colour of the skin, and the absence of any of the 
discoloration that was the rule up till the time of Seti I , and other details of the 
embalmer’s technique , indicate that this body was not mummified before the latter 
part of the XIX th Dynasty. 

The position of the arms gives us no information , for I have already called attention 
to the fact (see the accounts of the mummies of the women in Amenothes II”' 1 * tomb 
and that of Thuaa) that the conventions adopted in the case of men did not apply 
to women. At all periods the mummies of women had their hands alongside the 
thighs, although there were occasional exceptions to this rule (as for example the 
elder woman in Amenothes II nd * tomb). 

The nature and situation of the embalming-wound varies a good deal from reign to 
reign. In this mummy it is placed alongside Poupart’s ligament, as was customary 
in the latter part of the XVIII th Dynasty. But the state of preservation of the mummy 
puts this period out of the question. In the early part of the XIX th Dynasty it was 
the rule to extend the embalming wound upwards into the iliac region; but at the 
close of that Dynasty (in the mummies of Siphtah and Seti II) the embalmers retur- 
ned to the late XVIII th Dynasty convention, as in this mummy; and in the XX th 
Dynasty (Ramses IV and V) the early XIX th Dynasty (Ramses II and Menephtah) 
site once more becomes the fashionable one. In the XXP‘ and XXII nd Dynasty the 
early XVIII th Dynasty site (high or suprailiac incision) comes into vogue. 

Thus on the evidence of the site of the embalming incision one might be inclined to 
put this mummy into the same group as Siphlah’s and Seti II nd *. But in the case 
of both of these mummies, as well as in that of Ramses IV (it is not known how 
the wound was treated in Ramses III) the incision was stitched up, whereas it is 
gaping in this woman’s mummy. However two mummies of the same date (for 
instance, Ioutya’s and Thoutyou’s) may be treated in different ways. 

Then again there is the nature of stuffing-material in the body cavity — the use of 
strips of linen. Seti II had hard resin-impregnated linen, like the XVIII th Dynasty 
mummies, whereas Siphtah and Ramses IV had dried lichen. From this it seems 
that the end of the XIX th and the commencement of the XX th Dynasties represent a 
transition period when experiments were being made in new forms of packing- 
material. In the mummy under consideration ordinary linen bandages, not treated 
with resin , were employed. The fact that no attempt was made to make artificial 
eyes favours the view that the mummy was earlier than Ramses IV, although 
this kind of evidence is not altogether conclusive, as the mummy of Ramses V 



On the other hand the practice of stuffing the cheeks (pi. LXVIII) does not begin 
until the time of Siphtah , so far as I am aware. 

The evidence is quite conclusive that this mummy belongs to the XIX th -XX th epoch 
and there is a good deal to suggest that it was either very late XIX th or very early 
XX th . 

The fact that it was associated with a group of mummies of kings suggests that this 
lady was also a member of the royal family. 

It is a very suggestive fact — though it may be a mere coincidence — that the only 
woman’s tomb of the XIX th -XX th date that is known in the Bib&n el Molouk was 
made for Tauosrlt, the consort in succession Siphtah and ofSetill, to whose times 
the technique of the mummification has led us to assign this body. 

61083. The Mummy of Ramses III (pi. L, LI and LII). 

The account of the unwrapping of this mummy, which took place on June t*‘, 1886 , 
in the presence of His Highness the Khedive Tewfik, is given in Les Momies royales, 
p. 563-566 (see also p. 767 ), and also in the Procfo-verbal de I’ouverlure des 
Momies de Ramsfa II et Ramsfa III (Bulletin de 1’Institut 4gyptien, 1886 ), from 
which the following account is taken, and reproduced in M. Maspero’s words. 

« Vers dix heures moins dix minutes, la momie n° 5929 fut retiree a son tour de la 
cage en verre. Elle avait et4 trouv4e dans le grand sarcophage n“ 5947 , ainsi 
qu’une autre momie sale et d4guenillt$e. Comme le sarcophage porte le nom de 
Nofritari, femme du roi Ahmos I" de la XVIII m ’ dynastie, on en avait conclu que la 
momie n° 5229 4tait celle de cette reine. L’autre momie aurait appartenu a une prin- 
cesse encore inconnue, et aurait 4t4 plac4e a c6t4 de Nofritari par les prtHres charges 
de cacher les cercueils royaux dans le trou de Deir-el-Bahari. Relegude aux ma- 
gasins du Mus^e, elle acheva de s’y corrompre et r4pandit bientot une telle odeur 
qu’il devint necessaire de s’en debarrasser. On 1’ouvrit done et on reconnut quelle 
etait emmaiilotee avec soin , mais le cadavre fut a peine expos^ a 1’air qu’il tomba 
litteralement en putrefaction et il se mit a en suinter un pus noirAtre d’une puanteur 
insupportable. On constata que e’etait une femme d’age mur et de taille moyenne , 
appartenant a la race blanche. Les bandelettes n’avaient aucune trace d’ecriture, 
mais un lambeau d’4toffe, d4couvert dans le sarcophage n° 5 247 , avait une sc4ne 
d’adoration du roi Ramses III, a deux formes d’Amon. Une courte legende , mi- 
partie en hi4roglyphes cursifs, mi-partie en hi4ratique, nous apprit que le linge 
ainsi decor4 etait un don du chef blanchisseur de la maison royale, et on pensa que 
la momie anonyme etait d’une des nombreuses soeurs, femme ou filles de Ramses III. 

La momie n° 5229 etait envelopp4e proprement d’une toile de couleur orange, fix4e par 
des bandelettes de toile ordinaire. Elle ne portait aucune inscription apparente; on 
voyait seulement autour de la t£te un bandeau couvert de figures mystiques. 
M. Maspero rappela a S. A. le Khedive que Nofritari est repr4sentee peinte en noir 
dans certains tableaux, mais que d’autres monuments lui attribuent le teint jaune et 
les cheveux lisses des femmes 4gyptiennes. De 14 des discussions interminables 



entre les egy ptologues , les uns prCtendant que la reine Ctait une negresse , les autres 
affirmant que la couleur noire de son visage et de son corps Ctait une simple fiction 
des prCtres : son culte, tr£s rCpandu a Thebes, en faisait une forme d’Halhor, la 
dCesse noire, la dCesse de la mort et des tCnebres. L’ouverture de la momie n° 5229 
allait probablement resoudre a tout jamais ce probleme d’bistoire. La toile d’orange 
dCtachCe, on aper^ut, sur le linceul en toile blancbe qui venait imm£diatement au- 
dessous , une inscription en quatre lignes : « L’an XIII et le second mois de Sbemou , 
le 28 , ce jour-la, le premier proph&te d’Amon, roi des dieux, Pinotmou, fils du 
premier prophCte d’Amon Pi 6 nkh, le scribe du temple Zosersoukbonsou, et le scribe 
de la nCcropole Boutebamon , aHCrent restaurer le dCfunt roi Ousirmari-Miamoun et 
1’etablir pour I'Cternite. v Ce qu’on avait pris jusqu’alors pour Nofritari Ctait done le 
cadavre de Ramses III, et la momie anonyme Ctait sans doute Nofritari. Ce point 
constate, Ramses III fut dressC sur ses pieds et photographic dans son costume de 
bandelettes. Si courte que ffit la pose, elle parut longue encore au grC des spec- 
tateurs. La pCripCtie qui substituait un des grands conquCrants de 1’^gypte a la reine 
la plus vCnCrCe de la XVIII m " dynaslie les avait surpris et excitCs au plus haut degrC : 
le dCpouillement recommenca au milieu de 1’impatience gCnCrale. Tous avaient 
quittC leur place et se pressaient pCle-mCle autour des opCrateurs. Trois Cpaisseurs 
de bandelettes disparurent rapidement, puis on fut arrCte par un maillot de canevas 
cousu et enduit de poix, puis, cette gaine fendue a coups de ciseau, de nouvelles 
couches de linge se firent jour a travers 1 ’ouverture; la momie semblait fondre et 
se dCrober sous nos doigts. Quelques-unes des toiles portaient des tableaux et des 
iCgendes a 1’encre noire : le dieu Ammon est assis sur son tr 6 ne, et, au-dessus, une 
ligne d’hiCroglyphes nous apprend que cette bandelette a CtC fabriquCe et offerte par 
un dCvot du temps ou par une princesse de sang royal, «par la dame chanteuse 
d’Amon-Ra, roi des dieux, Fa'itaatnimout, fille du premier prophete d’Amon, 
Pionkh, pour que le dieu Amon lui accordat vie, santC et forces. Deux pectoraux se 
dissimulaient sous les plis de 1 ’Ctoffe : le premier, en bois dorC, n’avait que la 
representation ordinaire d’Isis et Nephthys adorant le Soleil; mais 1’autre, en or 
pur, Clait RamsCs III. Une derniere gaine de canevas poisse, un dernier linceul de 
toile rouge , un desappointement vivement ressenti par 1 ’assistance : la face Ctait 
noyCe dans une masse compacte de goudron qui empCchait de distinguer les traits. 
Aonze heures vingt minutes, S. A. le KhCdive quitta la salle. 

Les operations furent reprises dans Tap^s-midi du mCme jour el dans la matinCe du 
3 juin. Un nouvel examen des bandelettes a permis de reconnaltre des inscriptions 
sur deux d’entre elles; la premiere est de Tan IX, la seconde de Tan X du grand 
prCtre d’Amon, Pitolmou I®. Le groudron, attaquC prudemment au ciseau par 
M. Alexandre Barsanti, sculpteur adjoint au MusCe, se dCtacha peu peu. Les traits 
sont moins conserves que ceux de Ramses II ; on peut cependant recomposer jusqu’a 
un certain point le portrait du conquCrant. La t£te et la face sont rasCcs de pris 
et ne montrent aucune trace de cheveux ou de barbe. Le front, sans Ctre ni trCs 
large, ni trCs haut, est mieux proportionnC que celui de RamsCs II; l’arcade sourci- 
liere est moins forte, les pommettes sont moins saillantes, le nez moins arquC, le 



menton et la machoire moins lourds. Les yeux Ataient peut-Atre plus grands , mais 
on ne peut rien affirmer a cet Agard : les paupiAres avaient 4 l <5 arrachAes, la cavity 
avait AtA vidAe, puis remplie de chiffons. L’oreille est moins AcartAe du crAne que 
celle de Ramses II ; elle est percAe pour recevoir des pendants. La bouche est dAme- 
surAment grande, les Icvres minces laissent apercevoir des dents blanches et bien 
rangAes; la premiere molaire de droite semble s’Alre brisee a moitiA ou s’Atre usAe 
plus vite que les autres. Le corps , vigoureux et bien muscle , est celui d’un homme 
de soixante-cinq ans. La peau ridAe forme derriere la nuque, sous le menton, aux 
hanches, aux articulations, des plis enormes imbriquAs 1 ’un sur 1 ’autre; le roi Atait 
obAse au moment de la mort. Bref, RamsAs III est comme une imitation reduite et 
floue de Ramses II; la pbysionomie est plus fine et, somme toute, plus intelligente , 
mais la taille est moins haute, les Apaules sont moins larges, la vigueur < 5 tait 
moindre. Ce qu’il Atait lui-mAme A la personne , son rAgne Test au rAgne de RamsAs II : 
des guerres , non plus A distance , en Syrie ou en ^thiopie , mais aux bouches du 
Nil et sur les frontiAres de l’figypte , des constructions , mais le mauvais style et d’exA- 
cution bAtive, une piAtA aussi fastueuse, mais avec des ressources moindres , une 
vanitA aussi effrAnAe, et un dAsir tel de copier en tout son illustre prAdAcesseur 
qu’il donna A ses fils les noms des fils de RamsAs II et presque dans le mAme 

Les deux momies , replacAes dans leurs cages aprAs une lAgAre prAparation , seront dA- 
sormais exposAes A visage dAcouvert comme celle du prAtre Nibsoni. n 

Professor Virchow makes the following statements , among others , in reference to this 
mummy. «Wie es scheint, stand dieser Pharao in einem Verwandtschafts-Ver- 
haltniss zu Nachkommen von Ramses II. In der That erinnert seine Mumie in ihrer 
ganz modernen Gesammterscheinung an der von Seti I. Der noch erhaltene innere 
Mumiendeckel is ahnlich, nur zeigt er eine am Riicken eingebogene Nase. Die 
aussere Hulse gehorte urspriinglisch Nefert-ari an. Der Kopf ist von kraftigem Aus- 
sehen, die Stirn gross und hoch, mit schwachen Wulsten besetzt. Der Scheirtel 
hoch. Auch dieser Kopf ist dolicocephal (Index 73-g) und wahrscheinlich ortho- 
cephal (Ohrhohenindex 63 - 5 ). Das Gesicht ist stark entstellt dadurch, dass man, 
wahrscheinlich bei der Einbalsamirung, die xMundwinkel durch lange, schrag nach 
unten gerichtete Schnitte verlangert hat. Der Gesichtsindex (89-6) erreicht fast die 
Leptoprosopie, dagegen hat die grosse und gekrummte Nase einen verhaltnissmas- 
sig hohen Index (58-9), abhangig von der grosseren Breite der Nasenfliigel. Die 
oberlippe ist viel kiirzer als die der fruheren Ronige. Die Kiefer ortbognath. Das 
Rinn hoch angesetzt und etwas eckig. Korperlange 1 m. 683 mill, -n ( Die Mumim 
der Konige itn Museum von Bulaq, op. cit. supra, p. 776). 

Virchow (p. 786) gives the following measurements : cranial length, 0 m. 192 mill.; 
cranial breadth, 0 m. lAa mill; auricular height, 0 m. 122 mill.; circumference, 
5/17 ; minimal frontal hreadth; total facial height, 0 m. 121 mill.; upper facial 
height (measured to lip), 0 m. 073 mill.; bizygomatic breadth; bigonial breadth, 
o m. 102 mill.; nasal height and breadth, 0 m. o 56 mill, and 0 m. o 33 mill. 

As the resin -impregnated linen carapace investing this mummy is quite complete. 



excepting the head-portion, which was removed in 1886 (see M. Maspero’s account 
quoted above) it was deemed undesirable to interfere with it. Hence we have no 
direct information concerning the treatment of the body of Ramses III; hut the 
details of the embalmer’s technique were so similar in the late XIX th (as revealed 
in the mummies of Siphtah and Seti II) and the XX th (as seen in Ramses IV and 
his successors) that it is unlikely this mummy would have thrown any new light 
upon the methods of mummification. It would have been of same interest to learn 
whether any protecting plate was placed over the embalming wound; and if so 
whether it was of the oblong form (with the eye-design stamped upon it) as in the 
XXI* 1 Dynasty or the plain leaf-life form used in the XVIII th Dynasty. 

Such a point as this would easily be determined by the use of the X-rays without 
damaging the mummy or its wrappings; and at the same time the question of the 
presence or absence of amulets analogous to those found on Seti II could be settled. 

- There are several features of this mummy that may be regarded as innovations. 

The hands are not flexed as in mummies of the late XVIII th , and XIX th Dynasties; but 
are fully extended with the palms resting upon the shoulders. As this full extension 
of both hands, in association with flexed elbows, occurs also in Ramses IV and 
Ramses V and in all probability in the case of Ramses VI also, vide infra), but in 
no other mummies , it can be regarded as a distinctive feature of the XX th Dynasty 

Artificial eyes are found in this mummy (pi. LI), and although it became the custom 
from this time onward to improve the appearance of the mummy’s face by inserting 
linen , stone or some other material to fill out the eyelids and represent the eyes , 
the mummy of Ramses III is , I believe , the earliest in which such a device has been 

In appearance Ramses III presents a considerable likeness to the three earlier kings of 
the XIX th Dynasty described in this Catalogue. 

61084. The Mummy of Ramses IV (pi. L1II, LIV and LVII). 

This is one of the mummies found by M. Loret in 1898 in the tomb of Amenothes II. 
The wrappings were removed by me in the Cairo Museum on June a 4 th , 1905. 

The ancient grave-plunderers stripped this mummy of all its wrappings; and when it 
was reclothed in the succeeding dynasty all that was done was simply to throw 
around the body a mass of rags with a few simple bandages to hold them in posi- 
tion , and then place a shroud around it. 

The name of Ramses IV was written in ink upon this shroud , as well as upon the lid 
of the wooden coffin in which it was found. 

Ramses IV was a man 1 m. 60 h mill, in height. He was almost quite bald, only a 
very narrow fringe of hair (cut quite close to the scalp) remaining on the temples 
and occiput. The complete closure of the lambdoid and posterior part of the sagittal 
sutures (the only regions available for examination) suggests an age of at least fifty 
years and probably more. 



The body is in a good state of preservation , but the bandages are adherent to the skin 
in most places. The skin is darkened so as to be almost black in most regions of 
the body ; but the face and scalp are quite a light brown colour. 

The face was clean shaven and it requires a lens to detect the presence of the closely 
cut hair on the lips and chin. 

A crescentic band of black paint (8 millimetres in vertical extent at its widest part) 
extends across the whole supraorbital area. 

A great part of the skin of the forehead has been eaten by beetles or some other insects. 

In front of each collapsed eye a small onion had been pushed under the eyelids to 
simulate the real eyes. The effect was more successful than one might imagine 
possible. The light brown colour of the dried onion distending the eyelids harmonises 
with the colour of the skin and lends quite a natural appearance to the whole 

In placing the mummy in the vertical position for the purpose of photographing it 
(pi. L1II and L1V), the onions have fallen on to the lower eyelids. 

In the account of Ramses III I referred to the use of artificial eyes as being an 
innovation in the XX th Dynasty , which became a regular custom afterwards. 

Through the nostrils the brain was removed and the cranial cavity packed with a 
reddish resin in a state of powder. The nose was then packed with a resinous paste 
(which is now set into a mass of stony hardness), and the surface of this paste in 
each nostril was covered with the scale of an onion. 

The pressure of the embalmer s bandages has flattened the cartilaginous part of the 
nose (pi. LIV); but there is no doubt that Ramses IV had the prominent aquiline 
nose suggestive of his forerunners of the XIX th Dynasty, associated however with a 
prominence of the upper teeth such as distinguished the royal family in the XVIII th 
Dynasty and Seti II in the XIX th . 

The mouth is filled with a black resinous paste , which is also spread over the lips in 
a band about 1 3 millimetres broad. Part of this mass was loose in the space 
between the lips and I removed it so as to expose seven of the upper teeth. They 
were regular and healthy, but well worn. 

Ramses IV has a moderately long oval face. 

The ears are small and shrunken. There is no definite evidence to prove that they 
were pierced , although analogy with other mummies suggests the probability that 
the lobules might have been perforated. The lobule of the right ear is represented 
by two small nodules. It is quite possible that they represent the remains of a 
greatly stretched ring of lobule, which has been torn right through. 

In the left parietal bone, just in front of the lambdoid suture, there is a large irre- 
gularly triangular hole in the cranial vault : its edges measure 5, A . 9 and A . 8 
centimetres respectively (pi. LVII, the figure on the right side). It is clear that it 
was done after the process of mummification. At one time I was inclined to regard 
this injury as the result of the attempts of plunderers to hastily remove the wrap- 
pings from the head by hacking through them with an axe and then hastily ripping 
them open ; but the remarkable regularity with which such as injury occurs in the 



cases of Menephtah , Seti II , Ramses IV, Ramses V, Ramses VI and others raises 
some doubt as to the theory of accident. Moreover in the case of the mummy of 
Menephtah, which I have recently unwrapped, the hole is small and appears to 
have been deliberately made. What the explanation of this can be must be reserved 
for future discussion. M. Maspero puls forward the hypothesis that it was done for 
superstitious reasons, «to let out the evil spirits n. 

Against the view of this injury being accidental is the fact that these mummies belong 
to one group chronologically, which may suggest that it was a practice to make 
such on opening in the late XIX th and XX th Dynasties. But. the prince in Amenothes 
II"* 1 ’ tomb, whose body was certainly embalmed in the XVIII th Dynasty, also has 
his cranium broken in. This suggests another possible explanation. The fact that 
the group of mummies in which this injury occurs were associated together in the 
tomb of Amenothes II, while the other royal mummies hidden elsewhere at Deir el 
Bahari are exempt from it, may mean that these mummies were plundered by a 
band of robbers who made a practice of chopping the bandages of the head for the 
purpose of rapid stripping of the mummy. 

There can be no doubt that in most cases (probably all excepting Ramses V only) 
the damage tb the scalp and cranium was done long after the process of embalming 
was completed; and in view of this fact I am inclined to look upon these cranial 
injuries as having been accidentally inflicted by robbers. The cranium is o m. 
ig 4 mill, long; o m. i 4 a mill, broad : minimal frontal breadth, o m. 101 mill.; 
and circumference, o m. 545 mill. 

The arms are flexed at the elbows and the hands are fully extended in the manner 
characteristic of the XX th Dynasty (pi. LIII). The right hand, however ,4s lower 
than is usual in the XX th Dynasty : instead of being in front of the shoulder, it is 
placed opposite the middle of the humerus. The left forearm is placed in the more 
usual position. 

Four holes in the front of the neck (pi. LIII) are the work of some insect. 

The embalming- wound (which is now lorn open and its anterior lip broken) extends 
parallel to the left Poupart’s ligament from the anterior superior spine of the ilium 
to the spine of the pubes. It was stitched up with a string consisting of a twisted 
piece of fine linen bandage. 

The abdomen is packed with short stalks of dried lichen , probably Parmelia furfuracea Ab. 
Precisely similar material was found in the mummy of Siphtah. 

The penis and scrotum, hanging vertically, were each bandaged separately (pi. LIII). 
The penis is 0 m. ,091 mill, long, and the scrotum 0 m. 076 mill, long and 
0 m. o 3 o mill, broad. An elliptical piece of skin, 18x7 millimetres, was cut off 
the right side of the penis at the junction of the glans with the body of the organ : 
this w;as done probably just after death and before the process of embalming, but it 
may possibly be an ulcer with clean-cut edges. 

The problem of deciding whether Ramses IV and V were circumcised was not easy of 
solution , although the condition of other mummies makes it probable a priori that 
they were. However, I shaved off thin slices of the retroglandular skin and examined 

Calal. du Masee, n° 6io5i. 




them with the help of a lens : this served to remove all doubt in my mind that 
circumcision had actually been performed. 

A plug of resinous paste was placed in the anus. 

Among the damage inflicted upon this mummy by the tomb -robbers, the right foot 
was broken off and the finger nails were displaced and lost. 

61085. The mummy of Ramses V (pi. LV, LYI and LVII). 

This is another, of the mummies found by M. Loret in 1 898 in the tomb of Amenothes II. 

I removed the wrappings from it on June 95 th , 1905, in the Cairo Museum. 

After the outer shroud was removed the upper part of the body was found to be 
enveloped merely in a mass of lorn bandages loosely thrown around it without any 
attempt at bandaging. Some of the linen was burnt by some corrosive agent. A 
series of simple bandages were then removed from the lower part of the chest, 
abdomen and legs, and then a handage which described a figure of 8 around the 
feet and ankles before winding around the legs. 

Then a sheet of linen, which extended from the neck to the knees, was removed, 
and after taking away a large mass of loose rags the body was found to be com- 
pletely divested of all its coverings. 

The embalming wound was a large (0 m. 169 mill. ) elliptical, widely gaping opening 
in the front of left side of the abdomen close to the ilium (pi. LV). 

This is a sudden reversion from the late XVIII th site for the embalming incision, seen 
in'the mummy of Ramses IV, to the early XIX th site see Ramses II, for example). 

The abdomen contained sawdust with some unrecognisable viscera lying loose (without 
wrappings) in it. This fact is of interest, when it is recalled that during the time 
of the succeeding, or perhaps even in the latter part of the XX th dynasty, it 
became the custom to replace the viscera in the body -cavity, usually in a sawdust 

In contact with the skin over the anterior part of the second left intercostal space a 
lock of hair was found lying free. It was closely rolled in a narrow spiral ( tubular) 
form 0 m. 060 mill, long and 0 m. 00 5 mill, in diameter. 

The face was painted an earthy red colour, like that of the mummies of many priests 
' of the XXI“ Dynasty. 

The cranial cavity was packed with 9 metres of soft linen 0 m. o 3 i mill. wide. This 
material was introduced into the cranial cavity (through a perforation in the ethmoid 
bone) by way of the right nostril. In the process the nose was not distorted in 
any way. 

Both nostrils were plugged with discs of wax. 

Linen was packed under the eyelids to form artificial eyes. 

The lobules of the ears were perforated; and the holes were enlarged, so that the 
lobular tissue of each ear had become reduced to a more string surrounding a 
quadrilateral perforation. 

The upper lip, the front of the chin and the submayllary triangle are studded with 



straight, dark brown, and some lighter- coloured hair, varying from 3 to A milli- 
metres in length. The scalp is thickly covered with hair of similar length. 

The lips are placed in exact apposition and the oral cleft filled with wax. 

Ramses V was a much younger man than his predecessor. The mummy is 1 m. 
726 mill, in height and is in an excellent state of preservation. 

On the surface of the pudenda, lower part of the abdominal wall and the face 
(pi. LVI) there is a very well-marked papular eruption, the distribution of which 
my colleague, Professor A. R. Ferguson, stales to be highly suggestive of smaU-pox. 

The plunderers have done comparatively little damage to this mummy beyond com- 
pletely stripping it of its original wrappings. The tips of the fingers of the left 
hand were sliced off by a sharp instrument, as well as the skin from the knuckles 
and the left zygomatic arch, 

In the left parietal bone, just behind the coronal suture and close to the middle line, 
there is an obliquely- placed irregularly -elliptical hole in the cranium (pi. LVII, 
the figure on the left) 0 m. o 3 A mill. xo m. oiq mill. Behind it the scalp is 
raised from the bone for a distance of about 0 m. 02 cent, and rolled back in a 
manner which was possible only when the scalp was plastic i. e. either before or 
just after death. In this respect it forms a marked contrast to the condition found 
in the other mummies with perforated crania — Menephtah, Seti -II, Ramses IV 
and Ramses VI : in them the injury was inflicted when the scalp was dry and 
paper-like i. e. after mummification. Moreover on the skull of Ramses V there is a 
wide area of discolouration and a patch of black material around the hole. Although 
the whole appearance of this discoloured area is suggestive of ante-mortem blood- 
staining it is impossible to determine whether the black material is really blood, 
because neither the chemical nor biological tests for blood can afford positive 
evidence in the case of material that is more than a century, or at most two 
centuries, old. 

Unlike the state of affairs found in Ramses IV th mummy, the pudenda wife not 
wrapped separately in this mummy. The penis was dragged laterally into contact 
with the right thigh (pi. LV). It is 0 m. 1 l/t mill, in length. The scrotum is large 
and baggy, o m. 01 A mill, long and 0 m. 087 mill, wide, and has been pushed 
hack and pressed against the perineum, the whole of which (including the anus) 
is covered by it. The great size of the scrotum suggests that Ramses V suffered from 
inguinal hernia , or possibly hydrocele. 

Immediately below Poupart’s ligament in the right groin there is a large irregularly 
triangular deep ulcer with thickened edges. It measures o m. 022 mill, by 0 m. 
018 mill. It is smeared with a black resinous paste, which prevents a minute exa- 
mination of the characters of the ulcer : but its situation and characters suggest 
that it may represent an open bubo. 

Certain injuries of the body suggest that the tomb -robbers used sharp-bladed instru- 
ments to chop off the wrappings. The fingers of the left hand (pi. LV and LVI) 
were sliced by a sharp blade. The skin covering the metacarpo-phalangeal joint of 
the index finger was cut off by one stroke; a second raised the skin from the 



proximal interphalangeal joints of the index and middle fingers; and a third cut 
sliced off the tips of the index, middle and ring fingers. 

Another cut removed the skin from the left zygomatic arch. 

The arms are placed in the position characteristic of the XX th Dynasty (pi. LV). 

Ramses V had a sloping forehead, a fairly prominent nose, and a big, heavy, square 
jaw — features recalling those of the early XIX th Dynasty Pharaohs. 

61086. The Mummy of Ramses VI (pi. LVIII and LIX). 

This mummy was found by M. Loret in 1898 in the tomb of Amenothes II. I removed 
the wrappings from it on July 8 th , 1905, in the Cairo Museum. 

Much as the royal mummies have suffered at the hands of ancient tomb-robbers , none 
of them, not even that of Amenothes III, was so severely maltreated as that of 
Ramses VI. Ihe head and trunk were literally hacked to pieces and when the 
mummy came to be rewrapped it was necessary to obtain a board — a rough piece 
of coffin — on which to tie the fragments of the body and give tbem some semblance 
of the form of a mummy (pi. LVIII). 

The shroud of fine linen, which had enveloped the whole body, was already pulled 
aside from the upper part of the mummy, where the underlying wrappings were 
in a state of great disorder (fig. 1). 

Amongst the mass of rags the broken pieces of the head and a woman’s right hand 
came to light. In removing the loose bundle of torn pjcces of linen that were thrown 
around the chest, I found a distorted and mutilated right hand and forearm of a 
man, but they did not belong to this mummy. In the place where the neck of the 
mummy should have been I found the separate left hip bone (os innominatum) and 
the rest of the pelvis. The right elbow and the lower half of the humerus were 
found lying on the right thigh and the head of the left femur was alongside the 
upper end of this fragment in front of the abdomen. 

When the bandages investing the right thigh were removed the right forearm (hacked 
off at the elbow and wrist with axe -cuts) was found — still wrapped in its original 
bandages. Although an attempt had thus been made to put the arm into the 
position in which it was customary to place it at the time the rewrapping was done 
(i. e. vertically at the sides — the XXI“ Dynasty custom), it is interesting to note 
that the folds of skin around the elbow make it clear that the arms were originally 
folded over the chest, as the practice was in the XX th Dynasty. 

The left upper arm was torn off at the shoulder and put in its proper place. The rest 
of the arm had been chopped off at the elbow. 

On removing the first bandage , which passed spirally around the lower parts of the 
legs a broken piece of rib was found lying in front of the ankles. 

This bandage was a tattered strip of fine linen 3 m. oo5 mill, x 0 m. 19 cent. A 
second similar bandage passed spirally around the legs upward beyond the knees 
and a third continued the process upward to the hips. 

A mass of loose rags was then removed from the front of the knees. Then was exposed 



a longitudinal sheet of very coarse matting tied in front of the legs by irregular 
scraps of fine linen in the form of circular ligatures. When this was removed I 
found a series of short bandages of varied materials and sizes — but all of them 
old tattered scraps — wound spirally around the legs. Then a mass of loose rags 
were found packed around the left hand and forearm. There was then exposed a 
complicated bandage intended to fix the head and the other loose fragments to the 
legs — the only solid part of the body. [At this state the photograph shown in plate 
L VIII , fig. a, was taken]. A yellowish shawl was slung round the thighs fixing the 
left forearm; it was looped in front and then passed obliquely downward, then 
under the feet and up as far as the right knee, where it was tied to a reddish brown 
scarf, which passed right up around the fragments of the head, down the left side 
of the body and under the feet , reaching almost as far as the above-mentioned knot. 

When this was removed three bandages were found fixing the legs to the board on 
which the mummy was placed : a figure-of-8 around the ankles and feet, a 
circular bandage below the knees and another around the thighs. 

Then a peculiar sheet of linen (Diagram 20 ) — apparently the remains of a dress, 
with two armholes (CC) — was wrapped around the mummy. The ends of the sheet 
(for one third of the distance at each end) were torn into four strips of equal breadth : 
at the head-end the outer pair of tails were torn off and the remaining two (AA) 
were tied around the head. The tails at the other end 
(BBBB) were wrapped in figures-of-8 around the legs. 

Under these two bandages were found — - one passing in a circu- 
lar manner around the hips and the other around the ankles. 

After removing a few loose rags the remains of the body were 

The separated anterior abdominal wall was turned inside out. 

The neck was severed -from the body at the sixth cervical ver- 
tebra. The lower jaw and the skin covering it were detached 
from the head. The whole facial skeleton was broken off and ' 
lost,* only the skin of the face remaining. There is a large 
gash caused by two axe- cuts just above the left ear and tem- 
poro-maxillary joint , and a second vertical cleft through the 
right side of the whole face and forehead in the mid-orbital 
line. There are two knife- cuts below the left eye. A vertical 
crack extends from the gash above the left ear to a large hole 
o m. 1 hk mill. X o m. oq cent, in the vertex of the skull. 

The left hip-bone was broken. All the ribs were broken in 
the mid-axillary line and the front of the chest-wall lost. 

The right scapula and the upper part of the humerus were smashed off (not cut) in 
their bandages. The elbow was hacked through with an axe, leaving the head of 
the radius and part of the olecranon attached to the humerus. The wrist was 
chopped through with an axe in an oblique direction. The right hand is missing; 
hut the right hands of two other mummies were found amongst the wrappings. 



The left scapula and outer half of the clavicle are still attached to the body. The 
humerus was torn off at the shoulder joint and the middle of the shaft of the 
humerus (still in its wrappings) was broken across. The elbow was hacked through 
with an axe leaving the upper ends of the radius and ulna attached to the humerus. 
The left hand, fingers and the wrist exhibit numerous axe-cuts. 

The cranial cavity had been packed with pieces of linen and resinous paste. The mem- 
branes of the brain were preserved. The nasal fossae were packed with linen as far 
hack as the pharynx. 

Ramses VI was 1 m. 716 mill, in height and apparently middle-aged — probably 
older than Ramses V, but younger than Ramses IV. 

His body was embalmed in the same manner as those of his two predecessors. 

I have fitted together the pieces into which the tomb -robbers chopped his head 
(pi. LIX). 

The cranium is beloid; length, o m. 182 mill., and breadth, 0 m. 1 48 mill. : 
circumference, 0 m. 545 mill. 

No hair (excepting the eyelashes) are visible upon the face to the naked eye : but with 
a lens closely shaven hair of the beard and moustache can be detected. 

The part of the scalp of the forehead that is visible is bald : but' on the scalp elsewhere 
short hairs (about 1 millimetre long) are present. 

The face , including the eyes and forehead , was thickly plastered with resinous paste. 
The ears were pierced. 

The teeth are only slightly worn. 

61087. The Mummy of Queen Notmit (pi. LXIX, LXX and LXX1). 

This mummy was partially unwrapped by M. Maspero (Les Monties royales, pp. 569, 
570 and 677) on June i st , 1886, and on September 1 3 th , 1906, I removed some 
more bandages, so as to expose the head and certain other parts of the mummy, 
concerning the treatment of which information was needed. 

In Les Momies royales (p. 677) M. Maspero stales that Notmit was the consort of 
Hrihorou. « Hrihorou was married to Notmit. To the probabilities that I have indi- 
cated above, M. Wiedemann has supplied the conclusive proof of this statement v. 
Rut in his Guide du Visiteur (190 5 Ed", p. 336 ) M. Maspero refers to ctla reine 
Notmit, m&re du pr 4 tre-roi Hrihorou ». 

In the account given in the Guide it is stated that «la momie avait lt£ fouillde par les 
Arabes et le papyrus enlevd. Une partie du papyrus est deposde pu Louvre, Tautre 
au British Museums. 

The mummy of Notmit, being the earliest representative of the XXI*- Dynasty, which 
was a period when the whole technique of the embalmer s art underwent the most 
curious and profound modifications, is of peculiar interest in the study of the 
evolution of the new practices ( see my memoir entitled A Contribution to the Study 
of Mummification, M^moires de lTnstitut ^gyptien, 1905). 

It was during the reign of Hrihorou that great activity was displayed in restoring the 



plundered tombs of the rulers of the three preceeding dynasties, whose mummies 
have been under consideration in the foregoing part of this Catalogue. 

Whether or not it was the contemplation of the shrunken and distorted forms of many 
of these mummies that impressed on the embalmers of Hrihorou’s time the imper- 
fections of their art it is, of course, impossible to decide. But we do know that 
immediately after the striking object-lesson afforded by the handling of these 
mummies of the XVIII th , XIX th and XX th Dynasties (see in this connection pi. LIII, 
LV and LXVII , as examples of what the restorers of the XXI' 4 Dynasty saw), the 
embalmers of the XXI“ Dynasty set to work to devise some means of restoring to 
the embalmed body the fulness of limb and features that it had possessed during 
life but had lost during the process of mummification. 

There were two possible ways of restoring the shape of the mummy (1) by applying 
materials to its surface or (a) by packing them underneath the skin. In other words 
the embalmer had the option of building up the shape of the wrapped mummy or 
of the body itself. The former method had been tried in the time of the Ancient 
Empire (the mummy supposed to be Ranofir, found by Professor Flinders Petrie 
at Medum in 1892) and long afterwards had some vogue in Graeco-Roman times. 
The second method had been tried in the case of the mummy of Amenothes III, 
but was abandoned immediately afterwards, until the embalmers of the XXI“ 
Dynasty once more revived it. 

It is of peculiar interest to note that in the case of Nolmit’s mummy only the former 
method (padding applied to the surface) was employed; but in the case of her 
successors of the XXP 4 and XXII n<1 Dynasties the process of packing the body itself 
was used, without any external padding. 

There are certain indications that suggest a possible reason for the adoption of the 
much more difficult operation of stuffing the body in preference to the simpler 
procedure of padding. For many details of the technique of embalming that make 
their appearance for the first time in these XXI“ Dynasty mummies go to prove 
that the idea of the embalmers was to make the body not only as life-like, but 
also as complete, as possible, so that it might represent the deceased, and take 
the place of both his actual remains and the funerary statue, which was placed in 
in his tomb in earlier times. 

The body was painted with red or yellow ochre and gum just as the statues used to 
be treated : artificial eyes were inserted; the cheeks and neck were filled out with 
stuffing; the forms of the trunk and limbs were restored; and the viscera, which 
it had been customary to set apart in the four Canopic Jars, were now restored to 
the body so as to make it whole and complete. 

That this idea of making the body itself complete determined the choice between 
« externals and k internal r padding in favour of the latter is suggested by the fact 
that the practice of replacing the viscera and inserting artificial eyes was already 
coming into vogue in the XX th Dynasty (vide supra : the mummies of Ramses IV 
and Ramses V), before any attempt was made to remedy the defects of its 
external form. 



There was evidently already in the XX th Dynasty a feeling in favour of restoring to the 
body the viscera which had been removed for the purpose of mummification 
and so of making the body complete in itself; and when the pious labours of 
Hrihoru impressed upon the embalmers of the XXI“ Dynasty the need for resto- 
ration of the form of the body also , they hesitated at first in their choice between 
the simple proceeding of external padding and the highly difficult operation of 
internal packing; hut were eventually brought to adopt the latter by reason of their 
newly- acquired desire to make the body complete. They attempted to make the 
mummy not only structurally complete, hut also to restore the form of the body itself. 

In Notmit’s mummy we have exemplified the transition -period , when the embalmers 
were trying to restore the form of the wrapped mummy. 

There is no trace of any packing within the limbs or neck. The practice of stuffing the 
mouth, initiated apparently in the case of Siphtah and continued through the XX th 
Dynasty, was still in vogue. The back is not stuffed; but masses of sawdust wrapped 
in linen were placed upon each buttock; and a very large quantity of sawdust was 
packed around other parts of the body, and especially the legs and abdomen, and 
retained in position by means of bandages impregnated with resinous material so 
as to form a complete carapace, analogous to that seen in the mummy of Ramses III 
(pi. L). 

No definite plate was placed over the embalming -wound; but an amorphous lump of 
wax, about the size of a hen’s egg, was plugged into the wound. 

Upon the head there is an artificial wig, consisting of an elaborate arrangement of 
long plaits, tied (as in the case of Hent-em-pet’s wig, p. 21) to strings form- 
ing three sides of a square (pi. LXX). The wig consists of brown hair, but 
(pi. LXXI) I have drawn some of its strands aside to show some of Notmit’s own 
scanty grey locks. 

Instead of the paint which it was customary to apply to the eyebrow region, in 
Notmit’s mummy a pencil of hair was applied longitudinally to the skin of each 
eyebrow -region and stuck there (pi. LXX). 

The eyes, mouth, nostrils and ears were protected by wax plates, which I removed 
in order to display the features. Artificial eyes, made of white and black stone, 
were inserted under the eyelids. This is the earliest instance of the use of stone 
eyes or of the attempt to represent the pupil in an artificial eye in a mummy, 
although in statues such objects had been in use for more than fifteen centuries. 

The nose was stuffed with resin and the mouth with sawdust. 

The cheeks are so tightly stuffed that the lower part of the face (below the level of 
the eyebrows) has become almost circular. Although the introduction of foreign 
materials into the mouth had been in vogue ever since the time of Siphtah, this 
is the first mummy in which the cheeks are really filled out : in the late XIX th 
and XX th Dynasties only a small amount of packing material was introduced 
between the gums and lips; but from Notmit’s time onward the cheeks were 
tightly packed (pi. LXX). This stuffing has elongated the upper lip (pi. LXX and 
LXXI), which is 0 m. 028 mill. long. 



The nose is small, short and somewhat flattened, and in profile (pi. LXXI) is graceful 
in form. The brown wig and the smooth plump cheeks give Notmit a youthful 
appearance, which however is belied by the bald vertex and scanty fringe of grey 
hair, hidden under the wig. 

The body has been considerably damaged by tomb-robbers, probably some of the 
modern dwellers in the Thebaid. There are gashes made by some sharp instrument 
in both cheeks (pi. LXX and LXXI), in the bridge of the nose, the forehead and 
the front of the chest. The left humerus is broken close to the shoulder; both wrists 
are broken; and the legs are badly injured. 

The breasts are pendulous and flattened against the chest wall (pi. LXX). They are 
small, partly no doubt as the result of general emaciation, and possibly also from 
senile changes. 

The body-cavity is stuffed with sawdust; but neither in the neighbourhood of the 
embalming- wound nor of the cleft in the thorax (pi. LXX) was I able to find any 
trace of viscera. 

No attempt had been made to treat the pudenda in any way. 

The hands were not placed in front of the pudenda, but vertically alongside the hips. 
This position is not to be explained by Notmit’s sex, for in the XXI'* Dynasty it 
became the custom once more to place the arms in this position in both men and 
women, as had been the practice at the commencement of the XVIII th Dynasty. 

Although the tomb -robbers inflicted so much damage on this mummy they did not 
strip it completely of all its adornments. On the right arm there was the impression 
(in the resinous carapace) of a band-bracelet that had been stolen in modern 
times : but I found in situ upon each wrist a bracelet of very small, cylindrical 
carnelian beads, set on a string consecutively in a single row. Each bead was a 
little more than one millimetre in diameter and in length. 

On the right wrist there was also a string of large (about 4 millimetres in diameter), 
spherical lapis lazuli beads, with a carnelian lotus bud at each end. This siring 
was sufficiently long to make one and a half turns around the wrist and to permit 
its ends to be intertwined upon the front. 

Upon the left wrist there was a bracelet composed of cylindrical beads of solid gold 
and lapis lazuli , arranged alternately in linear series. Each bead was about 9 , 1/2 
millimetres in diameter and about 5 millimetres long. 

On the sole of each foot there was a bandage bearing an inscription in hieroglyphics. 
That on the left foot simply read « High Priestess of Amon v ; and that on the 
right foot contained a reference to « the first year of Pinotmou». 

The bandage on the left foot was rolled up and placed longitudinally in the hollow 
of the sole. 

In contact with the right side of the body was a bandage bearing the name « Notmit n 
in a cartouche. 

Notmit’s mummy, including the wig, is 1 m. 548 mill, jn height. 

The height of the upper margin of the symphysis pubis (from the heels) is 0 m. 
790 mill. : height of nose above symphysis pubis, 0 m. 663 mill.; pubis to chin, 

Catal. du Muie« , n” 6io5i. 




o m. 590 mill, and pubis to suprasternal notch, 0 m. 5 io mill. Estimate of 
length of femur, 0 m. 365 mill., and of tibia, 0 m. 3 o 4 mill. 

Breadth of shoulders, 0 m. 320 mill.; interacromial breadth, estimated at 0 m. 
270 mill.; bitrochanteric breadth, om. 280 mill.; bi-iliac breadth, om. 270 mill.; 
interspinous (iliac) breadth, 0 m. 220 mill. 

Estimate of length of humerus, 0 m. s 5 o mill., and of radius, o m. 221 mill. 

Maximum length of hand (from radiocarpal joint), o m. 170 mill. 

Cranial length, 0 m. 176 mill. : actual breadth cannot be measured; including the 
wig, it is o m. i 5 o mill.; total facial height, 0 m. 127 mill.; upper facial height, 
o m. 080 mill. : nasal height and breadth, o m. o 55 mill, x o m. o 36 mill.; 
interorbital breadth, 0 m. 022 mill.; bizygomatic breadth, o m. 126 mill.; bigo- 
nial breadth, 0 m. 100 mill.; minimal frontal breadth, 0 m. 091 mill.; right orbit, 

0 m. 0A0 mill, x 0 m. o 3 o mill.; and left orbit, om. o 4 i mill, x 0 m. 028 mill. 

61088 and 61089. The Mummies of Queen Maker! and her baby, the princess 
Moutemhit (pi. LXXII, LXXIII and LXXIV). 

The wrappings of the mummy of Queen Makeri were torn open (pi. LXXII) by 
modern tomb-robbers (see Les Momies royales, p. 577). In June, 1909, I removed 
certain of the torn bandages on the trunk and arms in order to elucidate certain 
details of the embalmer’s technique in this mummy, which is the earliest example 
of the curious XXI'* Dynasty practice of stuffing the body. 

Within the coffin that contained this mummy was found a linen parcel 0 m. k 1 cent, 
long (pi. LXXIV), which, so the inscriptions inform us, is the baby princess 
Moutemhit. M. Maspero tells us that «La reine Makeri, epouse du grand-pr 4 tre et 
roi Pinotmou I er , mourut en mettant au monde 1 ’enfant qui fut enseveli avec 
elle » . 

The mummy of Makeri, together with its wrappings, is 1 m. 52 2 mill, in height. The 
wrappings on the top of the head are o m. 2 cent, thick and the hair adds to this 
at least another centimetre. Judging by comparison with the mummy of Hent-Taui 
(vide infra ) at least one centimetre must be allowed for the thickness of the foot- 
bandages. If we deduct these four centimetres this reduces the height of the body 
to 1 m. 482 mill. 

The body had been embalmed, packed and bandaged with extreme care and in a 
most elaborate manner. 

Various foreign substances had been introduced under the skin of every part of the 
body and moulded into some semblance of the queen when alive; and then the 
mummy was wrapped in linen of a fineness and a variety of texture unknown before 
this dynasty. But tomb-robbers had ripped through the carapace of linen from t 
the forehead to the pelvis, so that the front of the body is hidden by a mass of 
torn linen, intermingled with sawdust, which has escaped from the body-cavity 
through its damaged walls (pi. LXXII). The bands were in front of the thighs; but 
both are now badly damaged. The plunderers in the search for bracelets and other 



jewels slit up the wrappings of the arms and broke the left forearm so that the 
hand was hanging attached to it merely by a thread of bandage. 

A large quantity of mud was pul into the mouth , stuffing out the cheeks so unduly as 
to lend an almost Eskimo-like aspect to the face (pi. LXXII). Stone eyes have been 
introduced under the eyelids. 

The face was painted with a mixture of yellow ochre and gum ; and the nostrils were 
plugged with red resin. Powdered resin was also sprinkled over the face; and a 
sheet of thin muslin was then applied to it. The muslin has now become quite 
adherent, the gum in the paint acting as the adhesive material. 

The hair is dark brown , interspersed with a few grey hairs : it was parted in the middle 
and arranged in very loose plaits , or in some cases left in the form of mere wavy 
strands, which were brought round the sides of the face, covering the ears, to 
form a large mass under the chin. The ends of many of the plaits had blobs of 
solid material (resinous paste) attached to them. Two very loosely plaited wisps 
of hair were carefully arranged, one on each side of the forehead immediately in 
front of the main mass of the hair, so as to produce the appearence of a curled 

Fixed to the main mass of hair near the parting, but behind the attachment of the 
fringe-plaits just mentioned, there is a fine string of plaited leather, which passes 
through the hair to the right side of the head as far as the neighbourhood of the 
ear, where its end has been torn off. No doubt the plunderers removed some amulet 
from this string. In contemporary mummies small gold amulets, sometimes a small 
square plate or a uraeus, were fixed to the hair in front of the forehead. 

The lobules of the ears are pierced and greatly stretched. 

The head was enclosed in a strong carapace of linen and resin, 1 1 millimetres thick, 
which was built up in the following manner. It was first wrapped in a. sheet of 
muslin of exceeding fineness until a layer 3 millimetres thick was formed : to the 
surface of this a layer of resinous paste h millimetres thick was applied : to this was 
added a quantity of very fine linen until a layer 1 millimetre thick was formed, 
and finally another three millimetres of resinous paste was applied. 

Somewhat similar treatment had been applied to the limbs, after they had been packed 
in the manner to be described below. The carapaces of the legs are still intact 
(pi. LXXII) : they are bound together below the knees, and across the ankles and 
feet, by broad bandages, smeared with resinous paste. 

In the process of embalming the viscera were removed through an incision in the left 
flank; and, after the body had been preserved by long immersion in a preservative 
bath, the embalmgr introduced into the neck a quantity of fat (possibly butter) 
mixed with soda, which is now a cheese like mass, and with this distended the skin 
so as to give it the fulness of the living neck in place of the emaciated caricature 
seen in mummies not treated in this fashion (compare pi. LXXVII and LXXVIII). 
This cheesy material was introduced into the neck by the embalmer inserting his 
hand into the wound in the left flank and passing it right up through the body 
cavity. It was not possible (without damaging the mummy) to determine how the 





thoracic opening of the neck was treated, but in the other mummies of the XXI‘* 
Dynasty I found linen plugs inserted so as to close the thoracic inlet. 

The body cavity was packed with sawdust : but no trace of viscera , funerary genii or 
any other object are now present in this stuffing material. Perhaps the plunderers 
removed these things. 

The coverings of the embalming-wound in the left flank have been removed, presumably 
by the tomb-robbers, for such objects were of very great value, as the account of 
the next mummy in this series will show (see pi. LXXVI, fig. 2). 

The embalmers separated the skin from the underlying muscular tissues in the 
anterior margin of the embalming-wound; and into the space thus formed the 
operator placed his hand and forced it up under the skin on the front of the chest, 
afterwards packing the cavity underneath the skin with coarse linen. No attempt 
was made to pack the breasts, but the rest of the bust was moulded upon this 
foundation of cloth. 

M&kerl’s breasts were enormously enlarged, probably because she was lactating. They 
were flattened against the chest wall and were pulled away from the front so that 
their lower extremities were alongside the inferior margin of the thorax in the 
mid-axillary line. The thorax thus packed was protected by a complicated series 
of coverings. In the process of unwrapping eight layers of very fine muslin were 
first removed, then a carapace of a resinous paste (2 millimetres thick), then, 
eleven layers of fine but exceedingly closely-woven linen , then a layer of resinous 
paste (1 millimetre thick), then another -sheet of linen and another layer of 

resin ( 2 millimetres thick 

Diagram at. 

and then were exposed those 
curious leather objects (Dia- 
gram 21) commonly referred 
to as « braces 5). 

They consist in this case of a 
folded band of red leather, pas- 
sed around the neck and crossed 
on the front of the chest, where 
the ends [one is now missing] 
were furnished with a piece of 
yellow parchment, framed by 
the leather; and an indepen- 
dent pair of parchment tablets 
of different shapes, also framed 

in red leather and fastened , the one to the other, by means of two narrow strips 

of red leather. 

The parchment tablets are so thickly plastered with resinous material, which adheres 
firmly to their surfaces, that it is not possible to see the pictures or the inscriptions 
impressed upon the parchment. 

A similar set of « braces « and leather tablets (with the embossed designs and 



inscriptions undamaged) was found on the r Leeds mummy*, which belongs to the 
transition -period between the XX 411 and XXI' 4 Dynasties (William Osburn, An 
Account of an Egyptian Mummy, presented to the Museum of the Leeds Philosophical and 
Literary Society; Leeds, 1828, Plate 2). 

Resinous material was spread freely over these « braces* fixing them to the underlying 
coverings of the mummy, which consisted of the following : eight layers of mode- 
rately fine linen, covering a coating of resinous paste (2 millimetres thick), under 
which there was a sheet of finely and closely-woven linen, another sheet of similar 
texture stained red, then a thin layer of resinous paste and then two more sheets 
of fine (white) linen. 

The skin of the abdomen was loose and somewhat puckered. Taken in conjunction with 
the large size of the breasts, these facts support M. Maspero’s hypothesis that 
Maker! died in childbirth or soon after giving birth to the baby princess buried 
with her. 

The tomb-robbers ripped up the whole of the right arm (pi. LXXII), and thereby 
enabled me to examine the details of the process of stuffing the arms. They also 
broke ofT the left hand and I was thus able to study the elaborate method adopted 
for packing the hands. 

From an incision on each shoulder fine straw-like sawdust had been packed under 
the skin of the arm in sufficient quantity to fill it out to the size of the living arm. 
By means of a stick or some form of pushing instrument it had been forced down , 
not only as far as the elbow, but also beyond it to the wrist, both on the front as 
well as on the back of the forearm. In the case of the right arm the sawdust was 
pushed (from the shoulder) even on to the back of the hand, but on the left side 
it stops at the wrist, where a natural plug has been formed by a mass of tendons 
pushed down from the forearm. Below this plug a quantity of coarse linen has 
been introduced under the skin on the dorsum of the left hand (pi. LXXIII, fig. 2). 

There are deep circular groves on the fingers, the impressions of string tied around 
the nails to fix them in position while the body was in the preservative bath. 
The need for fixing the nails during this stage of the embalming process was due 
to the fact that the epidermis peeled off during the soaking in the bath and unless 
special precautions were taken it carried the nails with it. 

On each thumb (pi. LXXIII, fig. 1) there are three plain rings composed of metal 
wire 1 mill. 5 in diameter. The intermediate ring is silver, the other two gold. 

The baby’s mummy was not unwrapped (pi. LXXIV). 

61090. The Mummy of Queen Honittaoui (pi. LXXV and LXXVI). 

M. Maspero exposed the mummy to the extent shown in plate LXXV in the year 1886. 
The large hole in front of the thorax and abdomen was made by tomb-robbers in 
ancient times. It extends not only through the resin-impregnated carapace, but also 
through the wall of the body itself; for there is a large hole, 0 m. 18 cent, in 
diameter, in the epigastrium. 



When I came to examine this mummy (for the purpose of writing this Catalogue ) in 
June, 1909,1 noticed in the broken edge of the carapace the end of a fine string 
wrapped in red linen. It was lying upon a sheet of exceptionally fine linen, which 
was in direct contact with the skin; and it passed around the abdomen immediately 
below the level of the umbilicus. 

As my experience ol a large series of mummies of this period had taught me that string 
was never used except for the purpose of fixing in position amulets or other important 
objects I decided to remove a little more of the broken carapace on the left side of 
the body to find out where the string led. I chose the left side because that was the 
usual site of the embalming incision , where any object placed upon the abdomen 
would most likely be located. 

The string was traced to a large embossed gold plate (pi. LXXVI, fig. a), covering the 
embalming-wound. Apart from being the most valuable and magnificent sample of 
these protective plates yet found, it is also unique in having, in addition to the 
customary eye-design, representations of the funerary genii (the children ui Horus) 
and a nome standard (or support d’honneur) and a series of hieroglyphic ins- 
criptions : 

M. Daressy has supplied me with the following note concerning this plate : 

« La plaque d’or qui couvrait 1 ’incision dans le flanc gauche est la plus belle de celles 
trouvees jusqu’a ce jour. Large de 0 m. 108 mill., haute de 0 m. 07 5 mill., les 
bords sont renforc4s par des bandes minces de o m. 001 mill. 5 de largeur, 
soudees pour donner au contour une epaisseur de 0 m. 001 mill. L ornementation 
comprend des figures eslampees en relief et gravies, et des inscriptions gra- 
vies. Au milieu on voit Tuza ou ceil sacr 4 pos 4 sur le support dhonneur 
. Sur les cot4s les quatre genies fun^raires sont repr 4 sent 4 s debout, avec 

leur nom inscrit au-dessus d’eux. A droite c’est — **- 

dieu grand, seigneur de TOccident», a tele humaine, et 

«Hapi, dieu grand, ton fils qui t’aime » , a tete de cynoc 4 phale. A gauche A 

«Duamutef, dieu grand, fils d’Osirisfl, a t£te de chacal, et A J | 

« Kebhsenuf , fils d’Osiris » , hi< 5 racoc 4 phale. Sous le support, 


l l 1% 

deux inscriptions verticales de trois lignes chacune donnent les titres de la defunte. 

A droite | i V !' V I (IS 3 '*» 

fille rovale de son flanc, fille de la grande Spouse royale, m£re royale, maitressedes 

deux terres, Tadoratrice d’Hathor Hent-taui-n. A gauche j ^ | 

^ IL ‘*1 * * * ll "la premiere prAtresse d’Amon-rA, roi des 

dieux, maitre.sse des deux terres, Tadoratrice d’Hathor Hent-tauiv. 

There was a small perforation in each corner of the gold plate (pi. LXXVI, fig. 9) to 
which a string was attached , which passed around the abdomen to the fixed to the 
corresponding hole on the opposite site of the plate. 



The body was embalmed in accordance with the curious methods in vogue in the 
XXI’ 1 and XXII nd Dynasties, which I have already described in detail elsewhere. 
(A contribution to the Study of Mummification in Egypt, with special Reference to the 
curious methods employed during the XXI“ and XXII nd Dynasties, M6moires de Tlnstitut 
^gyptien , 1905) and some of which have already been exemplified in this Catalogue 
in the case of Makeri’s mummy. 

As the greater part of this mummy (pi. LXXV) is still encased in a hard carapace of 
resin-impregnated linen, only those parts where this has been broken through are 
available for examination. These parts are the head, a small area of thorax and 
abdomen (vide supra) and the right foot, from which the toes and their wrappings 
have been broken away. 

As in the mummies of Notmit and Maker}, and in fact all the mummies of royal and 
wealthy people of this and the following dynasty, the wrappings consist of linen of 
quite exceptional fineness. As in the case of Maker}, one of the innermost sheets is 
stained red. 

The hands are placed in contact with the thighs, the left being further forward than 
the right. The hands are slightly flexed (pi. LXXV). 

Upon the head there is a wig made of black string, representing hair parted in the 
middle and framing the face after the manner of the real hair in Mffkeri’s mummy. 
It is composed of loosely-coiled spirals, each about 0 m. oo 5 mill, in diameter and 
0 m. 35 o mill. long. The lower ends (from om. o 4 cent, to 0 m. 10 cent, in dif- 
ferent cases) are tightly coiled to form rope-like strands, which are brought around 
under the chin, where they are clumped together in a thick mass (pi. LXXVI, 
fig. 1). . 

Both the cheeks and the right foot were stuffed with that curious cheese-like mixture of 
fat (? butter) and soda, such as I have described as the packing material employed 
for stuffing Makeri’s neck. This material was frequently employed during the XXI“ 
Dynasty for stuffing the mouth and neck; but this is the only mummy in which I 
have found it in the feet. 

The body is that of a very plump , apparently young , woman , i m. 5 1 8 mill, in 
height (including the wig), with very large, full, pendant breasts. 

An exceptionally large quantity of the cheese-like material was packed into the mouth ; 
and with the deliquescence of the salts mixed with the fat , the stretched skin of the 
cheeks has burst open on each side , from the outer angle of the eye downwards to 
the chin (pi. LXXV and LXXVI). Thus her own skin has separated like a mask, 
which some writers have mistaken for an actual mask. 

Honitlaoui had small, well-proportioned features. Stone eyes, like those of Notmit’s 
and M&keri’s mummies, were employed in the case of her’s also; but their exposure 
to the salts, liberated by the bursting of her cheeks, has exerted a disintegrative 
influence upon the stone. 

The usual crescentic patch of black paint has been applied to the superciliary regions. 

The face has been painted with yellow ochre and gum and the lips (and possibly the 
cheeks also) have been painted red. 



The body -cavity is lightly packed with very fine, reddish, aromatic sawdust. In 
searching through as much of this material as could be reached through the wound 
in the epigastrium or from embalming-incision I found four teeth, seven pyramidal 
seeds (f pine), two wax genii, two fragments or intestine and Uh beads made of 
gold {? or electrum). As it was not possible (through the two restricted openings 
referred to) to explore the whole body cavity there may be many other objects still 
within this mummy. 

The teeth consist of a well-worn canine and three molars, one unworn, one slightly 
worn and the third worn to about the same extent as the canine. From the cir- 
cumstances under which these teeth were found they were placed in the body-cavity 
by the embalmers and probably belong to Honittaoui. If so, they indicate that she 
was a young adult. 

The wax figures are mummy-shaped with heads of the jackal and the hawk respecti- 
vely. The jackal was found in the epigastrium immediately behind the sternum — 
the position usually occupied by the stomach and the associated jackal-headed genius 
in XXI * 1 Dynasty mummies. It is o m. io 4 mill, long, including the erect ears. The 
hawk-headed figure was not in its usual position (in the abdomen), hut high up on 
the right side of the thorax, in contact with the vertebral column. It is o m. 
095 mill. long. 

The beads found are of three varieties, (1) barrel-shaped beads made of circularly- 
corrugated beaten gold, each about o m. 01 cent, in length and o m. oo 5 mill, 
in diameter; (9) more slender beads shaped like maggots; and ( 3 ) spirally-coiled 
gold wire forming tubes, about 0 m. oi 9 mill, long, slightly wider at one end than 
the other. 

The embalming- wound was in the high infracostal position , which was customary not 
only in the XXI * 1 and XXII nd Dynasties, but also in the early XVIII th . 

In Honittaoui it is 0 m. i 3 cent, long and gapes widely. Its lower part extended 
downward in front of the anterior superior spine of the ilium for a distance of 
0 m. o 4 cent. 

A large plug of resinous paste, in which was-embedded a good deal of coarse sawdust 
and some of the gold wire spirals (vide supra), was pushed into the embalming 
wound, forcing its edges apart for a distance of 0 m. o 5 cent, and inverting them 
(toward the abdominal cavity) for 0 m. o 3 cent. 

On the outer surface of this resin plug there was a plate of wax. It was not 
accurately adjusted to the embalming wound, for, together with the gold plate 
applied to its outer surface, it had slipped backward to the extent of about 
o m. o 4 cent. 

When the viscera were removed from the body the pelvic cavity was cleared com- 
pletely of all its contents and a plug of linen was applied to the perineum and 
secured in position by means of a thick string, which was passed through the 
rima pudendi and pelvis and out through the embalming incision, down to the 
perineum again. 

This is the only example of this curious procedure that I have seen. 



61091. The Mummy of Taiouhrit (pi. LXXVII and LXXVIII). 

The mummy of Taiouhrit was exposed (still enclosed in its carapace of resin-impregnated 
linen) on June 99 th , 1886 (Les Momies royales, p. 578); and on July 6 th , 1909, 
I removed part of the carapace so as to expose the face. 

M. Maspero makes the following statements in the Guide du Visileur : re la chanteuse 
d’Amon-M, roi des dieux Taiouhrit. Le papyrus de cette femme, conserve a Leyde, 
- ' nous apprend qu’elle < 5 tait fille du p&re divin d’Amon, Khonsoumos, et de la chan- 

teuse d’Amon Tantamanou». 

Including the carapace (on the head and feet) the mummy is 1 m. 606 mill, in 

The carapace was built up like those already described in the mummies of M&keri and 
Honttaoui of fine linen and resinous paste. But the latter is freely mixed with sawdust 
in this mummy; and in places the fine, muslin bandages are stuck together with 
masses of gum. As in the other mummies of this dynasty one of the innermost sheets 
of linen is dyed red. 

In plate LXXVII the posterior part of the carapace is seen in situ. I left this part so as 
not to weaken the attachment of the head to the rest of the mummy. 

The nostrils were covered with circular discs of wax; and on the sides of the nose large 
buttresses of wax were placed (pi. LXXVIII) to support and prevent distortion of the 
nose. There is a large wax plate in front of the right eye, but none in front of the 
left, where the usual artificial stone eye can be seen. The lips are widely separated 
and the space between them filled with a large projecting mass of wax (see plates 

The ears are covered with hair arranged in curls, probably a wig. Her own hair 
is freely intermingled with white, but there are very few white hairs in the 
part which seems to be the wig. One of the curls passes down on to the right 

The cheeks are stuffed like those of the other three mummies just described. 

The skin of the face, and especially that of the forehead, has been damaged extensively 
by insects (pi. LXXVIII). 

In the XXI‘* and XXII nd Dynasties it was the custom to cover the embalming wound 
with an oblong plate, bearing the conventional eye design. It was made of 
gold, electrum or bronze; at other times of wax or a mixture of wax and other 

In the XVIII th Dynasty the only plates that I have seen were fusiform or leaf-shaped 
and perfectly plain , i. e. had no design of any kind upon them. 

I have not seen any plates from mummies of the XIX th or XX th Dynasty, so that I am 
unable to say when the fusiform, plain plate gave place to the oblong, engraved 
variety. On the mummy of Taiouhrit the embalmers, for some unknown reason, did 
not make use of the form of plate that I have found in more than forty mummies 
of her time, but a plain fusiform plate, 0 m. i 5 o mill, x o m. o 5 a mill. 57 such 
as the embalmers of the XVIII th Dynasty employed. ' 

Catal. du Mu tee , n° 6io5i. 




61092. The High-Priest and General-in-chief Masahirti (pi. LXXIX). 

M. Maspero removed the wrappings from this mummy on June 3 o th , 1886 (Les Momies 
royales, p. 571). It had been plundered in recent times by the Luxsor people. 

M. Maspero described Masahirti as « grand pr 4 lre d’Amon, g^mhal en chef, fds duroi 
Pinotmou I" et pere do la reine Isimkhabioun. 

The mummy is that of a large, heavily-built and corpulent man, 1 m. 696 in height, 
with a very short sparse white heard on the chin, submaxillary region and lower part 
of the masseteric area, but only a few sparsely -scattered hairs to represent 
moustaches. The hair of the scalp is also short and white; hut it is now thickly 
smeared with resinous material. 

The face and the whole body was painted with a thick layer of red -ochre, as was 
customary in the mummies of men in this dynasty. The body has been submitted 
to the packing-procedures customary at the time it was embalmed; but the cheeks, 
as usually happened (vide supra) were much too tightly stuffed (pi. LXXIX), so 
that they have an unnaturally puffed-out appearance. 

The lobules of the ears have small perforations. 

The arms and fingers are extended; but the hands are placed fairly near together in 
front of the pubes. By reason of the corpulency of the body the hands do not come 
low enough to cover the pudenda (pi. LXXIX). 

The embalmers departed from the custom of their time in choosing the site for the 
embalming incision : for instead of making it high up above the level of the iliaG 
spine, they reverted to the custom that prevailed in the late XVIII and again in 
the early XX th Dynasties and made it parallel to and alongside Poupart’s ligament. 

In plate LXXIX it is hidden by the left hand. It is 0 m. 120 mill. long. 

My study of the large series ( 44 ) of mummies of priests of Amon of the XXI“ Dynasty 
revealed occasional departures from the prevailing custom; but in all cases there 
was some obvious reason for it. By analogy with these anomalous cases it seems to 
me that in Masahirti’s. case his corpulence was the reason for choosing the anterior 
site for the embalming incision. In a subject of his bulk the attempt to eviscerate 
the body through the loins in the way customary at his lime would have presented 
very great difficulties. 

The skin is soft and flexible. It bears impressions on the front of the chest of the 
so-called « braces » and of a pectoral ornament. 

On all the fingers and toes there are impressions made by string employed to fix the 
nails in position during the progress of the embalming operations. In addition the 
middle finger of the right hand hears a gold thimble, which covers its two distal 

61093. The Mummy of Queen Isimkhabiou (pi. LXXX). 

The wrappings of this mummy were so complete and perfect in every way (pi. LXXX) 
that M. Maspero (Les Momies royales, p. 577) decided not to disturb it. 



The outer shroud of the mummy is held in position by five circularly-arranged ban- 
dages, one longitudinal sagittal bandage and two lateral (marginal) bandages. In 
addition there are two oblique bandages simulating the so-called « braces v in 

Each bandage is composite, being formed of linen of two different colours, a deeper 
bandage (red) folded upon itself to form a ribbon o m. o 56 mill, wide and a 
superficial one folded to form a narrower band, o m. oho mill. wide. 

Height of mummy, 1 m. 568 mill. 

61094. The Mummy of the High-Priest of Amon Pinotmou II (pi. LXXXI). 

This mummy was first exposed by M. Maspero in June 28 th , 1886 (j Les Momies royales, 
p. 571 and 572). In the Guide du Visileur M. Maspero refers to Pinotmou II as 
k grand prAtre d’Amon, general en chef, fils dlsimkhabiou et du grand pretre 

The mummy was enclosed, like those of MAkeri and Honttaoui described above, in 
beautifully fine muslin in large quantities , with several layers of resinous paste inter- 
spersed amongst it. The muslin is not only exquisitely fine , but also has coloured 
borders and fringes. 

Upon the remains of 'jjt thoracic part of the carapace there are the remains of the two 
crossing strips of red -leather « braces n (pi. LXXXI) and also the impression of part 
of a pectoral ornament of the usual form. Each leather band of the s braces » is 
folded to form a structure o m. 02 cent. wide. 

Unlike the mummy of Masahirti (vide supra), in which there was a curious departure 
from the custom of the times in the selection of the site for the embalming-wound, that 
of Pinotmou II exhibits the proper vertical incision , extending from the ribs to the 
left anterior superior spine of the ilium. It is 0 m. 1 A 8 mill, long and is widely gaping. 

The face is a fine ovoid with a narrow aquiline nose. The embalmers had now learned 
not to over-pack the cheeks : hence the features of Pinotmou II have been preserved 
without the grotesque distortion seen in his immediate predecessors. 

The face was sprinkled freely with powdered resin , much of which has « caked n and 
become adherent to the skin. 

There is a fairly abundant , short white beard on the chin and underneath it but the 
upper lip was shaved (white hairs 0 m. 002 mill, are visible). 

The hands are placed vertically fully extended upon the lateral aspects of the thighs. 

The arms are packed with mud. 

Several parcels of viscera were placed in the body cavity. 

Height of mummy (with wrappings), 1 m. 706 mill. 

61095. The Mummy of Queen Nsikhonsou (pi. LXXXII, LXXXIII and LXXX1V). 

This mummy was partially unwrapped by M. Maspero on June 27 th , 1886 ( Les Momies 
royales, p. 578 and 579), and I completed the process just twenty years later. 



This is a typical example of the distinctive technique of embalming of the XX 1 “ and 
XXII nd Dynasties ; but its freedom from the gross distortions of face and members 
that marked the earlier attempts at packing is perhaps a distinguishing mark of 
XXII nd Dynasty work. 

The neck is stuffed with the cheese-like material in the manner described in the case 
of Makeri’s mummy (vide supra). 

There is a vertical incision, o m. o 3 cent, long, on the antero- lateral aspect of each 
shoulder (pi. LXXXII and LXXXIII), from which a small quantity of packing material 
was introduced under the skin of a localized area of the extreme upper and lateral 
part of the chest wall, and also into the arms as far as the wrists. The stuffing consists 
of sawdust; and the moulding of the arms has been skilfully done. The hands are 
not packed. The arms are placed vertically at the sides of the body; and the fully 
extended hands are placed alongside the lateral surface of the thighs (pi. LXXXII). 

The legs are stuffed in the customary manner. The embalmer introduced his hand into 
the embalming wound in the left flank and forced the packing-material (in this case 
a mixture of mud, sawdust and the cheese-like material, to which I have already 
referred), into each leg. In plate LXXXII the skin on the inner side of the right 
thigh can be seen to be broken away, so that the packing material is revealed 
in situ. 

The feet are stuffed; but I was unable to determine the spot where the packing material 
k was introduced. 

Flowers were wrapped around the great toe of each foot and a flower on a long stalk was 
placed upon the upper surface of the left foot, and another encircled the left ankle. 

The breasts are large and pendulous : but no attempt was made to pack them and 
restore the form of the bust. 

The pudenda were treated in the way that was customary in the XXI“ and XXII nd Dyn- 
asties : the labia majora were pressed together so as to hide the rima. 

The embalming wound is in the situation characteristic of this period : it is a vertical 
incision passing from the margin of the ribs to within o m. o 35 mill, of the anterior 
superior spine of the left ilium. It is visible in plate LXXXII alongside the left 

The embalming wound is o m. 1 9 5 mill, long and gapes to the extent of 0 m. o 5 o mill. 

It was covered by a wax plate of the usual form but without the usual eye design. 
Onion scales were placed upon the surface of the plate. 

The body cavity is packed with sawdust. 

The skin of the abdomen is loose and pendulous; and the mammillae are large and 
prominent. These two signs make it certain that Nsikhonsou was parous. 

Nsikhonsou is 1 m. 6 1 5 mill, in height. There is nothing to give any definite indication 
of her age; but she has no grey hairs. 

The face is of a graceful, narrow, elliptical form and the light colour of the skin sug- 
gests that it must have been very fair originally. 

The face is thickly encrusted with powdered resin, and large cakes of resinous material 
cover the eyes, nostrils and mouth. Underneath the resin shields artificial eyes of 



stone are found, but the material is badly disintegrated. The ears are pierced and 
the lobules drawn out into long strings (o m. 16 cent.) — see the left ear in 
plate LXXXIII. 

The long, dark brown hair bangs down as far as the front of the chest (pi. LXXXIII 
and LXXXIV). There are a few small plaits, but most of the hair consists of simple 
wavy strands. Most of these have been collected into two large masses, each of which 
is held together by means of a bandage wound spirally around it. One of these 
masses is brought down on the side of the neck to the front of the chest. 

The hair is thickly strewn with powdered red resin. 

The following measurements were made. Those of the head and face are merely esti- 
mations, for the thick mass of hair and the encrustations of resin render precise 
measurements impossible. 

Height of upper margin of symphysis pubis . 

... 0 

m. 83o mill. 

Height of chin above pubes 



Height of nose above pubes 

... 0 


Height of umbilicus above pubes 

... 0 


Breadth across shoulders 

. . . 0 


Interacromial breadth 

. . . 0 


Bitrochanteric breadth 

. . . 0 


Bi - iliac breadth 

. . . 0 


Length of humerus (estimate only) 

. . . 0 


Length of radius (estimate only) 

. . . 0 



Length of femur (estimate only) 

. . . 0 


Length of tibia (estimate only) 

. . . 0 


Length of hand, from radio -carpal joint . . . 

. . . 0 


Cranial length 

. . . 0 


Cranial breadth 

. . . 0 

1 87 

Minimal frontal breadth 

. . . 0 


Total facial height 

. . . 0 


Upper facial height 

. . . 0 


Bizygomatic breadth 

. . . 0 


Right orbit 

0 m. o&5 mill. X 0 


Nasal length and breadth 

0 o5a 

X 0 


The nose in narrow and aquiline, but not prominent : its profde passes in a straight 
line into the brow; and there is a sloping forehead, low and receding. 

Foot, o m. aa lx mill, long and o m. o 65 mill, broad. 

61096. The Mummy of Nsitanebashrou (pi. LXXXV, LXXXVI, LXXXVII and 

This mummy was unwrapped by M. Maspero on June 30 th , i886 ( Let Mamies royales, 
p. 579 and 58 o). The inscription on her coffin refers to her, according to 
M. Maspero, as «pr 4 tresse d’Amon, fille de Nsikhonsoun, and he adds « proba- 
blement de Pinolmou II v ( Guide du Visiteur ). 



XXI“- XXII nd period. The face especially has been very successfully treated and the 
fdling out of the cheeks and the artificial eyes of stone help in conveying a good idea 
of how this haughty. Bourbon-like lady must have appeared in the flesh (pi. LXXXVII 

She was about 1 m. 6ao mill, in height. Only a moderate amount of packing was 
introduced under the skin of the limbs, which on the whole were well moulded. 

This is perhaps the best example of embalming that has been preserved from the 
But the body cavity was very tightly stuffed with exceptionally fine sawdust, or 
rather powdered wood , which still has a strong pungent aromatic odour. 

The embalming wound in the left flank extended vertically upward from the anterior 
superior spine of the ilium. It is only o m. 093 mill, long and less than o m. oho mill, 
broad. Into it was stuffed a crumpled sheet of most exquisitely fine linen with a blue 
pattern on the edge and a fringe. On the surface of this muslin was placed a lump 
of reddish translucent resin (0 m. 087 mill, x 0 m. o 33 mill, x 0 m. 019 mill.). 
There is a distinct impression upon the skin and this piece of resin of an oblong 
plate (0 m. isa mill, x 0 m. og 3 mill.). 

On the outer surface of each shoulder, opposite the head of the humerus, there is a 
vertical incision (o m. o3 cent, long on the left side and 0 m. 2 1 cent, on the right). 
Each is neatly stitched up with a running thread. Through these openings the arms 
were stuffed. A wound upon the front of the left shoulder (pi. LXXXV 1 ) , presumably the 
work of ancient plunderers, reveals sawdust and a plug of linen as the materials used. 

Little attempt was made to model the anterior wall of the chest, and no packing ma- 
terial was introduced into the large pendulous breasts. 

The legs were packed in the usual manner and the modelling of the limbs has been 
accomplished in a very successful manner. The common practice of making an inci- 
sion between the great and second toes for the purpose of packing the foot was 
resorted to in this mummy. 

Both the toe-nails and finger-nails have been neatly trimmed with a crescentic edge. 

There are well-marked impressions upon the fingers and toes of the string which was 
tied around them to keep the nails in position during the embalming process. 

The hands were placed in front of the thighs. 

The right labium majus has been pushed inward to hide the rima pudendi. 

The surface of the mummy seems to have been painted with the mixture of yellow 
ochre and gum, to which I have referred in the case of other mummies of women 
of this period. 

The skin of the whole of the back, face, neck (pi. LXXXVIII), shoulders, abdomen, 
and thighs presents a series of roughnesses or maculae , but whether they are due to 
some pathological condition or merely the result of the process of embalming it is 
impossible to say. 

There are brown patches of discoloration upon the face, possibly due to the resin or 
the deliquescence of salts used in embalming. The rest of the skin is of a light 
yellow colour, which is not wholly due to the yellow ochre applied to it. 

The superciliary ridges have been painted brown in the usual way. 



Height to symphysis pubis o 

Height of nose above pubes o 

Height of suprasternal notch above pubes o 

Height of umbilicus above pubes o 

Breadth of shoulders ' o 

Biacromial breadth o 

Bitrochanleric breadth o 

Bi-iliac breadth o 

Breadth between anterior iliac spines o 

Length of humerus (estimate) o 

Length of radius (estimate) o 

Length of hand, from radio-carpai joint o 

Length from mid-Poupart point to external condyle of femur . . o 

Length of tibia (estimate) o 

Length and breadth of fool o m. a 1 3 mill. X o 

Cranial length o 

Cranial breadth cannot be measured but estimated at. o 

Cranial breadth, including hair o 

Minimal frontal breadth o 

Circumference (including hair) o 

Total facial height o 

Upper facial height o 

Nasal height and breadth o m. 061 mill. X o 

Bizygomatic breadth o 

Bigonial breadth o 

Interorbital breadth o 

Bipalpebral breadth . . ; o 

Left orbit o m. o48 mill. X o 

m. 836 mill. 

3i 1 

■a ho 

a 99 





1 53 

027 mill. 5 

1 o3 

Stone eyes made of white and black materials, are placed under cover of the semi- 
closed eyelids, and lend a realistically life-like appearance to the face (pi. LXXXVIII). 

The nose is very narrow and high-bridged, and although the cartilaginous part is slightly 
fallen in, there was probably a distinct angle at the junction of the bony and carti- 
laginous supports of the nose. Both nostrils were packed with resin. 

There is an unbroken line of brow and nose in profile. 

The upper teeth project slightly, so that their almost unworn edges can be seen pro- 
jecting through the resin with which the rather full lips and the narrow cleft between 
them had been smeared. 

The lobules of both ears are pierced but the holes have not been widely stretched. 

Each ear measures 0 m. 062 mill. xom. o 3 a mill. 

The hair is brown (probably bleached somewhat by the embalming materials), and 
wavy, and arranged in short curls which hang downward, some of them reaching 
midway down the neck. The hair was not pulled down over the ears in the usual 
manner. The margins of the hair-bearing area of the scalp are thickly smeared with 
resinous material. Immediately above the right ear (pi. LXXXVII and LXXXVIII) there 
is a mass of the cheese-like mixture of fat and soda, to which I have referred above. 

The packing and modelling of the neck has been unusually successful in this mummy. 


61097. The Mummy of Zadptahefdnkhou (pi. LXXXIX, XC, XCI, XCII and 

Some of the wrappings were removed from this mummy by M. Maspero on June 99 th , 
1886 ( Les Momies royales, p. 5^9 and 573), and I removed the rest in September, 

In the Guide du Visiteur M. Maspero refers to Zadptahefonkhou as «pr£tre d’Amon, 
fils royal de Ramsis d, and makes the following comments on the latter title : — « Le 
titre fils royal de Ramsis appartient A plusieurs personnages de la XXI' et de la XXII' 
dynastie ; il ne suppose pas qu’un Ramses aurait rAgnA vers celte Apoque. De m&me 
que la famille des Ramessides se perpAtuait en des reines, qui transmettaient A leurs 
enfants des droits hArAditaires , elle se perpAtuait en des princes qui avaient quel- 
ques-uns des titres et des honneurs de la royautA; un Rams As de cette famille 
n’avait pas besoin d’etre roi pour que ses fils eussent le titre de fils royaux. 
Zadphtahefonkhou se rattachait A la famille de Pinotmou II par un lien qui nous 
est encore inconnu. Les bretelles que sa momie porte sont estampAes au nom du 
grand prAtre d’Amon Ouapouti, fils du roi Sheshonq I". » 

When M. Maspero removed some of the wrappings in 1 8 86 , some bandages were 
left in position on the arms, feet and part of the abdomen. I removed these on 
September 5 th , iqo6, and brought to light a large series of amulets and other 
objects (pi. XCIII). 

On many of the fingers and toes (all the fingers of the left hand, except the index, 
Plate XCIII; the middle and ring fingers of the right hand; the fourth and fifth toes 
of the left foot and the second toe on the right) there were thin hand-like rings of 
gold, varying from o m. 002 mill, to 0 m. oo 3 mill, in width. Impressions of 
rings on other fingers and toes were found on the skin, as well as on the wrappings. 
These rings were used, no doubt instead of string, to fix in position the thimble 
of epidemis which secured the nails. 

On the left arm, just below the elbow there was fixed a string of carnelian amulets and 
a bunch of other amulets made of a variety of stones was tied alongside it (pi. XCIII). 

The carnelian objects represented eyes (2), a uraeus, a serpent’s head, a heart (AA), 

a lotus bud, a barrel and an object of this shape S jj S . At the ends of the various 

strings in the bunch were a lapis lazuli bead : a scarab and an eye, made of 
mottled black and white stone; two lotus buds, a scarab and a dad, made of a light 
green stone; a cylindrical bead, a ram (dwton), an eye and a dad, made of lapis 
lazuli ; a broken object made of black stone ; and a boomerang with the figure of 
Thoth engraved on it. 

An oblong bronze plate with the usual eye-design in raised lines upon it covers the 
greater part of the embalming wound (pi. XCIII). It measures 0 m. io 4 mill, x 
0 m. o 85 mill. Twenty years before, M. Maspero had found upon the neck of this 
mummy figures of two serpents and a lotus flower wrapped in the folds; and upon 
the chest a « heart-scarab » and a silver figure of a hawk with expanded wings. 



The mummy is t m. 695 mill, in height. 

The height of the symphysis pubis is. o m. 870 mill. 

The height of the nose above the pubes 0 690 

The height of the suprasternal notch above the pubes o 5 aa 

The height of the umbilicus above the pubes o 1 55 

The embalming wound is vertical and ovoid (0 m. ia 5 mill, x 0 m. 090 mill.) : its 
lower extremity (pi. XCIII) is 0 m. 028 mill, above the level of the anterior supe- 
rior spine of the left ilium (seen as a pale egg-shaped area in pi. XCIII). 

The body cavity was packed with lichen ( Parmelia furfuracea, Ah). 

Occupying the left iliac fossa and hypogastrium there was a large parcel wrapped in 
a linen bandage. When the bandages were unrolled the parcel was found to consist 
of intestines along with a figure of the Ape-headed Hapi. Although this association 
agrees with that quoted in most works on Egyptian Archaeology (based upon 
Pettigrew’s examination of one mummy of the XXl‘ l Dynasty) my observations upon 
the large series of mummies of priests of Amon from Deir el-Bahari (Mcknoires de 
flnstitut 4 gyptien , 1905) showed that Hapi was usually associated with the 
stomach, and that the intestines were usually guarded by the Hawk-headed son of 
Horus. [On this subject see the discussion on « Heart and Reins » in the Journal of 
the Manchester Oriental Society', vol. 1,1911]. 

The liver, wrapped in a linen bandage but without any funerary genius, was found in 
the epigastric region. Another parcel was found in the umbilical region and upon 
removing the -linen bandage contained two organs which seem to be the kidneys, 
but no funerary genius. 

It was impossible to explore the body cavity any further from the incision in the left 

The mouth is packed with sawdust. The neck has been carefully stuffed, but is not 
quite symmetrical (pi. XCII). Only a small area of the back, in the neighbourhood 
of the emoalming wound , has been stuffed : there is no packing in the buttocks and 
the skin is pushed inwards and downwards (towards the perineum) — plate XC. 

Only a small part of the legs and very little of the arms have been stuffed. A vertical 
incision (visible, though out of focus, in plate XGI), 0 m. o 3 cent, long on the 
antero-lateral aspect of each shoulder (o m. o 3 cent, below the acromion process) 
in now sewn up with a running stitch. Through it a small quantity of linen bandage 
was packed under the skin in front of the shoulder and arm , but none was pushed 
in front of the thorax or into the axilla. * 

The usual incision for packing the foot was found between the great and second toes. 
The finger nails were long (0 m. 00 3 mill, of dirt-margin) and untended. 
Zadptahefonkhou seems to have been a fairly young man, for the four front teeth 
that are exposed are only slightly worn. They are clean and healthy. Moreover there 
is no trace of grey or any thinning in the hair of the head. 

The face is broad and heavy-jawed, with a very prominent, high-bridged nose the 
cartilaginous part now flattened by embalmer’s bandages), prominent superciliary 

CataL du Mutee, n° 6io5t. 




ridges and sloping forehead. The usual crescentic area of dark brown paste is found 
on the brow-ridges. 

The usual kind of artificial stone eyes have been inserted under the half closed lids. 
They consist of pieces of white stone, into the front of each of which a circular 
patch of black stone was inserted to represent pupil and iris. 

The hair of the head was left long and was thickly plastered with resin. It is of a 
reddish brown colour (possibly due to partial bleaching and staining with embalming 
materials). Much of it is curled into pendant wisps, each about o m. oi5 mill, in 
diameter, which are so disposed that they cover the ears and part of the masseteric 
region; while a few stray curls hang down behind (pi. XCI). 

The moustache and beard had not been shaven for some days before death, and this 
fact and the presence of much white powder (pi. XCII) and resin gives the face a 
very dirty and unkempt appearance. The moustache and beard (o m. oo5 mill, 
long) are of the same colour as the scalp hair. 

The lobules of the ears seem to have been pierced , but they are thickly smeared with 
resinous material and hidden in great part by the hair. 

The cranial cavity is partly occupied by powdered resin , which was introduced through 
the right nasal fossa. 

The cranial length is about o m. 192 mill, but it is impossible to measure the breadth 
by reason of the matted, resin-impregnated hair : with the hair it measures 
0 m. i5o , but in reality it is probably not much more than 0 m. 1B0 mill.; for 
the cranium is of along, narrow ovoid form. 

Total facial height 

Upper facial height . . . . 

Bizygomatic breadth . , . 
Minimal frontal breadth . 
Bigonial breadth ...... 

Interorbital breadth .... 

External orbital breadth . 

Right orbit 

Nasal height and breadth 

0 m. 120 mill. 

o 075 

0 1 Bo 

o 100 

o 108 

0 022 

o 096 

o m. o 43 mill. X o o 33 

o m. o 55 mill. X o o 33 

Left orbit, each diameter a fraction of a millimetre less. 

As in the mummies of the queens described above (M&keri, Honttaoui and Taiouhrit) 
one of the innermost wrappings of this mummy was a red-coloured shroud. 

61098. The mummy of an unknown man «E» (pi. XCIV and XGV). 

This body was unwrapped by D r Fouquet on June 30 th , 1886 (Les Monties royales, 

p. 5A8-55i). 

M. Maspero makes the following statements in reference to this mummy. After describ- 
ing the dreadful appearance of Saqnounri’s mummy the account proceeds (Bulletin de 
Tlnstitut 4gyptien, 1886, p. 267 and 268) : «Une autre momie du m£me groupe est 
plus effrayante encore. Elle 4tait enferm4e dans une caisse blanche , sans inscription , 



et n’avait rien sur elle qui permit de constater son identity. Une peau de mou- 
ton i’enveloppait , puis un 4pais lacis de bandelettes, puis une couche de natron 
blanch&tre, charg4 de graisse humaine, onctueux au toucher, fetide, 14g&rement 
caustique; un second maillot, un second lit de natron et le cadavre. II n’avait pas et£ 
ouvert, et les visceres qu’on avait coutume d’extraire de la poitrine et du ventre sont 
encore en leur place. Les matures preservatrices n’avaient pas 4t4 inject^es, on les 
avait r^pandues autour du corps avec une habilet4 qui trahit une longue experience de 
ce genre de travail. On avait voulu eviter les longueurs ordinaires, les soixante-dix 
jours de 1 ’embaumement r^glementaire , et 1 ’aspect du personnage suffit a montrer 
pourquoi on avait eu recours a ce precede exptSdilif. 11 avait ete empoisonne : la 
contraction du ventre et de l’eslomac, le mouvement desespere par lequel la l$te se 
rejette en arri&re, 1 ’expression d’angoisse et de douleur alroce qui est repandue sur 
la face, sont autant d’indices certains. Les bras et les jambes avaient ete tordus par 
la souffrance : on les ramena, on les maintint par de fortes ligatures, et on sen 
remit aux embaumeurs du soin de faire disparallre toute trace du crime. S’agit-il 
d’une simple intrigue de harem? L’homme avait vingt-trois ou vingt-quatre ans et sa 
jeunesse autorise pareille supposition. Est-ce plut 6 t un pretendant au tr 6 ne qu’on 
aura supprime discr&tement ? Le fils aine d’Amenhotpou I w mourut avant d’avoir 
regne; peut-4tre est-ce lui que nous avons retroiive dans le cercueil sans nom. Nous 
savons que les conjurations etaient frequentes en Egypte ; Ramses III fit juger et 
executer un certain Penloirit, qui semble avoir ete un de ses freres, et qui avait 
complote de le d^troner. La forme du cercueil et la main-d’oeuvre de 1’emmaillote- 
ment m’empechent de reconnaitre dans notre personnage un prince de la XX 6 dynastie. 
C’est a la XVIII” qu’il appartenait et les monuments nous r^veleront peut-etre un 
jour le secret de sa vie. On ne 1’ignorait pas sans doute a Th&bes, pr&s de mille ans 
apres l’4v<5nement, sous le r&gne des grands pretres d’Amon. Les inspecteurs de la 
micropole continuaient a lui rendre les honneurs princiers et a se taire sur son 
nom et sur la cause de sa mort : aucun d’eux n’a os4 tracer sur le cercueil ou sur 
le maillot le moindre de ces proces-verbaux qu’il ecrivait si volontiers sur les autres 
morts. n 

The body is that of an apparently young man, 1 m. 709 mill, in height. The arms are 
extended and the hands are placed near together, but without touching, in front of 
the pubes. No attempt was made, however, to compose the features or to put the 
head into the position usual in mummies. 

The head is thrown back and set somewhat obliquely on the neck and the mouth is 
widely open. 

The hair is plaited : the ears are pierced : the teeth are worn only very slightly. 

There is no sign of any beard or moustache and the genitalia are absent. 

There is cheese-like material amongst the hair (pi. XCV). The skin of the face is thrown 
into ridges like that of Anhapou’s (vide supra). 

There is no embalming incision. 

This body has been treated in a manner that differs from all other known mummies of 
the time of the New Empire, to which presumably it belongs. 




For this reason it is not possible to assign a date to it, although it is probable that it 
is early XVIII 111 i. e. anterior to the time of Thoutmosis II. 

There does not seem to me to be any evidence to support the hypothesis put forward 
by D r Fouquet (vide supra) that this man was poisoned. A corpse that was dead of 
any complaint might fall into just such an attitude as this body has assumed. 

Without any clue whatsoever to indicate the period in which this individual lived or to 
suggest his identity it is idle to speculate on the history of his death. 

61099 and 61100. Two mummies from the tomb of Thoutmosis III (pi. XGVI). 

In the Guide du Visiteur M. Maspero summarizes the history of the finding of these two 
mummies. «En 1898, M. Loret, s’in spirant des rapports de quelques Arahes, reprit 
la piste, mais dans le Bab-el-Molouk lui-m 4 me. Les fouilles, menses avec une t<$nacit 4 
remarquable, furent couronn^es de succ&s et aboutirent, le 1 3 f^vrier 1898, ala 
d^couverte de Ihvpog^e de Thoutmosis III, viol6 d&s la XX' dynastie et dont la 
momie avait et 4 cach 4 e dans le trou de D( 5 ir-el-Bahari par les grands-pr£tres d’Amon 
th^bain. M. Loret y r^colta divers objets curieux, entre autres des panlb^res et des 
statuettes en bois bitumin^, et deux momies de femme, n 

M. Loret inclined to the view that these mummies were the remains of some members 
of the family of Thoutmosis III ; but M. Maspero was not convinced that there were 
any real reasons for this belief, and in September, 1905, he instructed me to 
remove the wrappings from one of the mummies (n° 61100), leaving the other 
(n° 61099) i ntact - 

Plate XGVI, fig. 1, represents the appearance of n° 61100 in its coffin before it was 
unwrapped; and fig. 2 represents (on a somewhat larger scale) the back of the 
mummy to show the way in which the shroud and the various circular and longitu- 
dinal bandages were fixed at the back. 

I removed the bandages from this mummy on September 10 th , 1905, in the Cairo 
Museum. There was no sign of any writing to indicate the identity of the person 
whose mummy we were investigating; but the body (or, rather, skeleton) was that 
of a woman, 1 m. 54 a mill, in height, which was embalmed and wrapped several 
centuries at least after the known royal mummies, as the manner of wrapping and 
the treatment of the body show. 

The flesh and the innermost wrappings were entirely corroded by the preservative 
materials employed in embalming the body, so that the hones of the skeleton were 
found lying amidst a large quantity of black powder. But I had to remove 42 
1 bandages or sheets of linen before reaching the charred wrappings. 

The mode of wrapping the body was obviously inspired by that in vogue in the XXI“ 
and XXII nd Dynasties , of which it represents a degenerate form. 

The mummy belongs to the late dynastic or. early Ptolemaic period and was certainly 
intrusive in the tomb of Thoutmosis III. 




Preface i-yiii 

The Royal Mummies : 

N® 6 io 5 i , Mummy of the king Saqnounri III Tiouaqen of the XVII th Dynasty 1 

N° 6 io 5 a, Mummy of an unknown woman, perhaps the princess Meritamon 6 

N® 6 io 53 , The Mummy of Anhapou. 8 

N® 6 io 54 , The Mummy of the Lady Raf 1 1 

N # 6 io 55 , The Mummy supposed to be that of Nofritari i 3 

N® 6 io 56 , The Mummy of an unknown Woman wBn iA 

N® 61057, The Mummy of King Ahm6sis I i 5 

N° 6 1 o 58 , The Mummy of Amen6thes I 18 

N® 61059, The Mummy of the Prince Siamon 18 

N° 61060, The Mummy of the Princess Sitamon 19 

N° 61061, The Mummy of Honttimihou 19 

N° 61062 , The Mummy of Hent-m-pet 20 

N® 6 io 63 , The Mummy of Sitkamos 21 

N° 6 io 64 , The Mummy of the Royal Prince Sipaari ' . . . 22 

N® 6 io 65 , The Mummy supposed to be that of Thoutmdsis I 2 5 

N° 61066, The Mummy of Thoutmfisis II 28 

N* 61067, The Mummy of an unknown man « C», found in the coffin of the Scribe Nibsoni. . 3 i 

N° 61068, The Mummy of ThoutmAsis III 3 a 

N® 61069, The Mummy of Amen6thes II 36 

N® 61070, The Elder Woman in the Tomb of Amen6thes II 38 

N® 61071, The Mummy of the Boy in the Tomb of Amen6thes II, probably the Royal Prince 

Ouabkhousenou 39 

N® 61072 , The Mummy of the younger woman in the tomb of Amen&thes II 4 o 

N® 61073, The Mummy of ThoutmSsis IV h 2 

N® 6107/i, The Mummy of Amen6thes III 46 

N® 61075, The bones of a skeleton supposed to be that of AmenAthes IV (Khouniatonou). ... 5 i 

N® 61076, The Mummy found in Baql's Coffin 56 

N° 61077, The Mummy of Seti I 57 

N® 61078, The Mummy of Ramses II 59 

N® 61079, The Mummy of Menephtah 65 

N® 61080, The Mummy of Siphtah 70 

N® 61081, The Mummy of Seti II 73 

N® 61082 , Mummy of an unknown woman «D» found in the coffin-lid of Setnakhiti 81 

N® 6 io 83 , The Mummy of Ramses III. 84 

N® 6 io 84 , The Mummy of Ramses IV 87 

N“ 6 1 o 85 , The Mummy of Ramses V 90 

N® 61086, The Mummy of Ramses VI 92 

Catal. du Mtite'e , n° Gioai. l5* 



N° 61087, The Mummy of Queen Notmit 

N° 61089) J r 3 

N° 6 1 090 , The Mummy of Queen Honittaoui 101 

N° 61091, The Mummy of Taiouhrit .~ io 5 

N° 61092, The High-Priest and General-in-chief Masahirti 106 

N° 61093, The Mummy of Queen Isimkhabiou 106 

N° 61094, The Mummy of the High-Priest of Amon Pinotmou II 107 

N” 61095, The Mummy of Queen Nsikhonsou 107 

N° 61096, The Mummy of Nsitanebashrou 109 

N° 61097, The Mummy of Zadptahefdnkhou 112 

N® 61098, The Mummy of an unknown man «Ed . 1 14 

N 61099,1 Mummies from the tomb of Thoutm6sis HI 116 

N° 61100, j 


Page 5 . For «coronoirdn read « coronoidw. 
Pages 11 and 1 4 . For r Fig. n read « Diagram n. 
Page 17. For «succesionn read « succession v. 


Queen Annapou 

An unknown woman " A 
perhaps Merltamon 

Catalogue du Mus&k ov Caire. 

— Royal Mummies. 

Queen Nofritari. 



■t , 


Catalogue r>u Musee nu Caire, — Royal Mihuifs, 


fho llrivnreity nf Chinsrn I \rsrlfl*, 

- V . . jj 

,v - in 

Catalogue du Mus£e du Cure. — Mummies. 

Plaie XVIII 

Queen SitkamoB 

The llrlvertily nf Cfcleitffn I lnrariftTL 

rWMi|« IVi llaal»4 

Catalogue du Mu$6e du Caire. — Royal Mummies. 

Plate XX 

Mummy supposed to be Thoutmosis 1 

IK* Uolvnr«Mv ^ GhWfcO l >ranft** 

p If 


Plate XXXI 

ATAt.oGUE du Mfste Du Came. Roy.ii. Mummies. 

"•* 'WvArtlty of l.hlr*m I , vine*, 


Plate XXXII 


Amenothes III 

The Inscription on tho shroud 


% » 



&A k 



Amcnothcs III. 

I ho Ur.lvfir«itv rl l.h'caan 

Catalogue nu Musef du Cairf.. — Roy.u Mv\i 

Cataloc.cjt Dtr B m: Caire. Momma. 

Kig. t 


Catalogue du Mus£k ou Caike. Royai. SIvumiey 

\tw> llrilmftitv f Chicago I. varifl?. 

, >!> ' 

Catalogue du Mus&e du Caihe. Mummies. 

Piute U 

Ramsesi III 


IJr.iw*4fxjlv f i.htraert I • iririft*. 

Catalogue du Mus4e du Cairk. — Mummies 

Ih* I l.Wrae.i 1 mriM. Mummies 

Catalogue du Mus6e du Caikl 

The University of Chicago L ifaries, 

Catalogue du Musis nu Caike — Royal Mummies 


'/ f 


£ j 

if ' 

< 1 

Whir.ien Li ir^rio^, 



Catalogue du Mus6e du Caihe. Mummies, 

Plate LX I 

A** - 

Fig- I 

Fig. 2 

Siphtah. Writing on shroud. 



Catalogue du Mus£e du Cairf. 

Catalogue nu Muste dc Caike. — Royal Mummies. 


g flea 



*. •’ 

' -jy 1 ’ 


W - 


| 4 



m A* #5" 

<y & t i>' & + *&■ 


5 P* 

i W~-'1 v ' JR 

A \\a. * 

A V 

i "] 

1 1 


-■ * d 


W ft 

Plate LXXX] 

Plate I.XXXII 

Catalogue du Mus£e du Caire. Roy.ii. Mummies. 




Ihr Hi lvRf*itv . ; l.hiracrt l far 


mmf^ Aj 

?i» ii 

lJR 11 



ff v i r 13 

ft V-'/ itfyfc; I 

*5u 1 



Plate XCIV 

n •• E \ 


// 1 1 


iff a I / 

t ^ Pi 1. - 

« r m u 




1 1 

Ws 'dr* 

4fcty MBM 

-S - WBm 









Catalogue du MusAe du Caire. — Royal Mummies. 

Plate XC1X 

Hv» UnlvftfRitv i*i T^teaeo Li atari** 

Catalogue rw Mus£k du Caihe. — Royal Mummies. 

Continuation of Plate C. 

Plate Cl